Sunday, January 04, 2009

Tyagaraja Kriti - Gandhamu Puyyarugaa - Raga Punnaaga Varaali - Nauka Charitram

Transliteration–Telugu
Transliteration as per Modified Harvard-Kyoto (HK) Convention
(including Telugu letters – Short e, Short o) -

a A i I u U
R RR lR lRR
e E ai o O au M (H or :)

(e – short E – Long o – short O – Long)

k kh g gh n/G
c ch j jh n/J (jn – as in jnAna)
T Th D Dh N
t th d dh n
p ph b bh m
y r l L v
S sh s h

gandhamu puyyarugA-punnAgavarALi

In the kRti ‘gandhamu puyyarugA’ – rAga punnAgavarALi, SrI tyAgarAja depicts gOpis celebrating their union with SrI kRshNa.

pallavi
1gandhamu puyyarugA 2pannIru gandhamu puyyarugA


anupallavi
andamaina yadu nandanupai
kunda radanal(i)ravondaga parimaLa (gandha)


caraNam 1
tilakamu didderugA kastUri tilakamu didderugA
kalakalam(a)ni mukha kaLa kani sokkucu
palukulan(a)mRtamul(o)likeDu svAmiki (gandha)


caraNam 2
cElamu kaTTerugA bangaru cElamu kaTTerugA
mAlimitO gOpAla bAlulatO-
(n)Ala mEpina viSAla nayanuniki (gandha)


caraNam 3
3hAratul(e)tterugA 4mutyAla hAratul(e)tterugA
nArI maNulaku vAramu yauvana
vArakam(o)sageDu vArij(A)kshuniki (gandha)


caraNam 4
pUjalu sEyarugA manasAra pUjalu sEyarugA
5jAjulu mari 6virivAjulu 7davanamu
rAjita 8tyAgarAja nutuniki (gandha)


Gist

  • gOpis applied sandal paste;
  • gOpis applied sandal paste mixed with rose-water (lavender).

  • Jasmine teethed gOpis applied well fragrant sandal paste on Lord kRshNa – the handsome son of yAdavas.

    • gOpis adorned the Lord with tilaka;
    • gOpis adorned Him with musk (mixed) tilaka;

  • bewitched, beholding the winsome lustre of His face,
  • gOpis applied sandal paste to the Lord in whose speech nectar oozes.

    • gOpis donned the Lord;
    • gOpis donned Him with pItAmbara;

  • gOpis applied sandal paste to the wide Eyed Lord who lovingly governed them, along with cow-herd boys.

    • gOpis performed hArati;
    • gOpis performed hArati of pearls;

  • gOpis applied sandal paste to the Lotus Eyed Lord who, always offers gOpis - gems of women - His youth as compensation.

    • gOpis worshipped the Lord;
    • gOpis worshipped whole-heartedly, with jasmine, tuscan jasmine and mugwort, the shining Lord - praised by tyAgarAja.


  • gOpis applied sandal paste;
  • gOpis applied sandal paste mixed with rose-water (lavender).



  • Word-by-word Meaning

    pallavi
    gandhamu puyyarugA pannIru gandhamu puyyarugA

    gOpis applied (puyyarugA) sandal paste (gandhamu); gOpis applied (puyyarugA) sandal paste (gandhamu) mixed with rose-water (lavender) (pannIru).


    anupallavi
    andamaina yadu nandanupai
    kunda radanalu-iravondaga parimaLa (gandha)

    Jasmine (kunda) teethed (radanalu) gOpis applied well (iravondaga) (literally firmly) (radanaliravondaga) fragrant (parimaLa) sandal paste
    on (pai) Lord kRshNa – the handsome (andamaina) son (nanda) (nandanupai) of yAdavas (yadu).


    caraNam 1
    tilakamu didderugA kastUri tilakamu didderugA
    kalakalamani mukha kaLa kani sokkucu
    palukulanu-amRtamulu-olikeDu svAmiki (gandha)

    gOpis adorned (didderugA) the Lord with tilaka (tilakamu); gOpis adorned (didderugA) Him with musk (kastUri) (mixed) tilaka (tilakamu);
    bewitched (sokkucu), beholding (kani) the winsome (kalakalamani) lustre (kaLa) of His face (mukha),
    gOpis applied sandal paste to the Lord (svAmiki) in whose speech (palukulanu) nectar (amRtamulu) oozes (olikeDu) (palukulanamRtamulolikeDu).


    caraNam 2
    cElamu kaTTerugA bangaru cElamu kaTTerugA
    mAlimitO gOpAla bAlulatO-
    Ala mEpina viSAla nayanuniki (gandha)

    gOpis donned (cElamu kATTerugA) the Lord; gOpis donned (cElamu kaTTerugA) Him with pItAmbara - golden (bangaru) garment (cElamu);
    gOpis applied sandal paste to the wide (viSAla) Eyed (nayanuniki) Lord who lovingly (mAlimitO) governed (mEpina) them (Ala) (gOpis), along with cow-herd (gOpAla) boys (bAlulatO) (bAlulatOnAla).


    caraNam 3
    hAratulu-etterugA mutyAla hAratulu-etterugA
    nArI maNulaku vAramu yauvana
    vArakamu-osageDu vArij(A)kshuniki (gandha)

    gOpis performed hArati (hAratulu etterugA) (hAratuletterugA); gOpis performed hArati (hAratulu etterugA) (hAratuletterugA) of pearls (mutyAla);
    gOpis applied sandal paste to the Lotus (vArija) Eyed (akshuniki) (vArijAkshuniki) Lord who, always (vAramu) offers (osageDu) gOpis - gems (maNulaku) of women (nArI) - His youth (yauvana) as compensation (vArakamu) (literally loan) (vArakamosageDu).


    caraNam 4
    pUjalu sEyarugA manasAra pUjalu sEyarugA
    jAjulu mari virivAjulu davanamu
    rAjita tyAgarAja nutuniki (gandha)

    gOpis worshipped (pUjalu sEyarugA) the Lord; gOpis worshipped (pUjalu sEyarugA) whole-heartedly (manasAra), with jasmine (jAjulu), tuscan jasmine (virivAjulu) and (mari) mugwort (davanamu), the shining (rAjita) Lord - praised (nutuniki) by tyAgarAja.
    gOpis applied sandal paste; gOpis applied sandal paste mixed with rose-water (lavender).


    Notes –
    Variations -
    1 – gandhamu puyyarugA – In some books this is given once only.

    3 – hAratuletterugA – hAramuletterugA : As the meaning derived is that of ‘hArati’, ‘hAratuletterugA’ has been adopted.

    8 - tyAgarAja nutuniki – tyAgarAja nutunipai. If 'tyAgarAja nutuniki' is correct, then it would be connected to 'pUjalu sEyarugA'; however if 'tyAgarAja nutunipai' is correct, then it would be joined with pallavi 'gandhamu puyyarugA'. In keeping with the ending of other caraNams, ‘tyAgarAja nutuniki’ seems to be appropriate.

    References -
    2 - pannIru – Indian lavender is normally made of rose and is called rose-water.

    4 - mutyAla hArati – normally hArati is performed with kunkum (vermilion) mixed with water wherein camphor is lighted; however, the locale might not have been conducive to such camphor lighting.

    It is part of the EkAnta sEva to Lord of Tirumala introduced by a yOgini venkamamba. Even now, during the EkAnta sEva, pearls are offered in the hArati plate.

    According to custom of hArati, the person to whom hArati is offered is supposed to 'pay compliment' for the hArati. That compliment, normally is placed as a coin in the plate of hArati itself and the persons who are performing hArati take the compliments. In this case, pearls are offered.

    Please refer to mutyAla hArati-1 - (Ekanta Seva); mutyAla hArati-2 - (Ekanta Seva)

    5 - jAjulu – jAdi malli in tamizh

    6 - virivAjulu – tuscan jasmine

    7 - davanamu – mugwort - a fragrant leaf plant.

    Comments -
    General – gandhamu puyyarugA – tilakamu didderugA – cElamu kaTTerugA – hAratulu etterugA – pUjalu sEyarugA – These verbs (puyyarugA etc.) cannot be adequately translated in English language. This is sort of wonderment.

    This is part of the dance-drama ‘nauka caritraM’ – The Boat Story.

    Background – The gOpis meet kRshNa at the yamunA river and travel in a boat happily. In their excitement of meeting kRshNa, gOpis become proud thinking that kRshNa is their property. In order to remove their proudiness, kRshNa creates a storm in the river and as the boat is tossed about, it develops a crack and water starts entering the boat. kRshNa feigns illness and the gOpis become desperate as to how they would reach shore and ensure safety of kRshNa. In order to save the boat, listening to the words of kRshNa, they take off their blouses to plug the hole. But, as these also were washed off, kRshNa asks them to remove their upper garments too to plug the hole in the boat. Even as these are washed away, they become hopeless and surrender themselves to the Lord. Seeing their condition, the Lord takes pity on them and restores order and the gOpis get back their clothes. In their renewed joy, they celebrate by worshipping the Lord. Now, the song.



    Devanagari

    ऎ,कॆ,चॆ.. - e,ke,ce..(short);
    ए,के,चे.. - E,kE,cE..(long);
    ऐ,कै,चै.. - ai,kai,cai..;
    ऒ,कॊ,चॊ.. - o,ko,co..(short);
    ओ,को,चो.. - O,kO,cO..(long);
    औ,कौ,चौ.. -au,kau,cau..;

    प. गन्धमु पुय्यरुगा पन्नीरु गन्धमु पुय्यरुगा

    अ. अन्दमैन यदु नन्दनुपै
    कुन्द रदन(लि)रवॊन्दग परिमळ (ग)

    च1. तिलकमु दिद्दॆरुगा कस्तूरि तिलकमु दिद्दॆरुगा
    कलकल(म)नि मुख कळ कनि सॊक्कुचु
    पलुकुल(न)मृतमु(लॊ)लिकॆडु स्वामिकि (ग)

    च2. चेलमु कट्टॆरुगा बंगरु चेलमु कट्टॆरुगा
    मालिमितो गोपाल बालुलतो-
    (ना)ल मेपिन विशाल नयनुनिकि (ग)

    च3. हारतु(लॆ)त्तॆरुगा मुत्याल हारतु(लॆ)त्तॆरुगा
    नारी मणुलकु वारमु यौवन
    वारक(मॊ)सगॆडु वारि(जा)क्षुनिकि (ग)

    च4. पूजलु सेयरुगा मनसार पूजलु सेयरुगा
    जाजुलु मरि विरिवाजुलु दवनमु
    राजित त्यागराज नुतुनिकि (ग)



    Tamil


    க,ச,ட,த,ப - 2-ख छ ठ थ फ; 3-ग ड द ब; 4-घ झ ढ ध भ
    (ச3 - ஜ)
    ஸ1 श - शिव - சிவன்
    ரு2 ऋ - कृप - கிருபை

    ப. க3ந்த4மு புய்யருகா3 பன்னீரு க3ந்த4மு புய்யருகா3

    அ. அந்த3மைன யது3 நந்த3னுபை
    குந்த3 ரத3ன(லி)ரவொந்த3க3 பரிமள (க3)

    ச1. திலகமு தி3த்3தெ3ருகா3 கஸ்தூரி திலகமு தி3த்3தெ3ருகா3
    கலகல(ம)னி முக2 கள கனி ஸொக்குசு
    பலுகுல(ன)ம்ரு2தமு(லொ)லிகெடு3 ஸ்வாமிகி (க3)

    ச2. சேலமு கட்டெருகா3 ப3ங்க3ரு சேலமு கட்டெருகா3
    மாலிமிதோ கோ3பால பா3லுலதோ-
    (னா)ல மேபின விஸா1ல நயனுனிகி (க3)

    ச3. ஹாரது(லெ)த்தெருகா3 முத்யால ஹாரது(லெ)த்தெருகா3
    நாரீ மணுலகு வாரமு யௌவன
    வாரக(மொ)ஸகெ3டு3 வாரி(ஜா)க்ஷுனிகி (க3)

    ச4. பூஜலு ஸேயருகா3 மனஸார பூஜலு ஸேயருகா3
    ஜாஜுலு மரி விரிவாஜுலு த3வனமு
    ராஜித த்யாக3ராஜ நுதுனிகி (க3)

    சந்தனம் பூசினரே! பன்னீர் சந்தனம் பூசினரே!

    அழகான யது நந்தன்மீது,
    முல்லைப் பற்களினர், படிய, வாசனைச்
    சந்தனம் பூசினரே! பன்னீர் சந்தனம் பூசினரே!

    1. திலகம் திருத்தினரே! கஸ்தூரித் திலகம் திருத்தினரே!
    கலகலப்பான முகக் களை கண்டு சொக்கி,
    சொற்களில் அமிழ்து சொட்டும் சாமிக்கு
    சந்தனம் பூசினரே! பன்னீர் சந்தனம் பூசினரே!

    2. ஆடை கட்டினரே! பொன்னாடை கட்டினரே!
    கனிவுடன், இடையர் சிறாருடன்,
    அவர்களையும் ஆண்ட, பரந்த கண்களோனுக்கு
    சந்தனம் பூசினரே! பன்னீர் சந்தனம் பூசினரே!

    3. ஆரத்தி எடுத்தனரே! முத்துக்களின் ஆரத்தி எடுத்தனரே!
    பெண்மணிகளுக்கு, என்றும் (தனது) இளமையை
    ஈடளிக்கும், கமலக் கண்ணனுக்கு
    சந்தனம் பூசினரே! பன்னீர் சந்தனம் பூசினரே!

    4. வழிபாடு செய்தனரே! மனதார வழிபாடு செய்தனரே!
    சாதிமல்லி, இருவாட்சி மற்றும் தவனகத்தினால்,
    திகழும், தியாகராசன் போற்றுவோனை;
    சந்தனம் பூசினரே! பன்னீர் சந்தனம் பூசினரே!

    சந்தனம் பூசினரே - ஆய்ச்சியரைக்குறிக்கும்
    யது நந்தன் - பரந்த கண்களோன் - கண்ணன்
    முல்லைப் பற்களினர் - ஆய்ச்சியர்
    அவர்களையும் - ஆய்ச்சியரைக் குறிக்கும்
    தவனகம் - மருக்கொழுந்து
    திகழும் - இறைவனைக் குறிக்கும்


    Telugu

    ప. గంధము పుయ్యరుగా పన్నీరు గంధము పుయ్యరుగా

    అ. అందమైన యదు నందనుపై
    కుంద రదనలిరవొందగ పరిమళ (గ)

    చ1. తిలకము దిద్దెరుగా కస్తూరి తిలకము దిద్దెరుగా
    కలకలమని ముఖ కళ కని సొక్కుచు
    పలుకులనమృతములొలికెడు స్వామికి (గ)

    చ2. చేలము కట్టెరుగా బంగరు చేలము కట్టెరుగా
    మాలిమితో గోపాల బాలులతో-
    నాల మేపిన విశాల నయనునికి (గ)

    చ3. హారతులెత్తెరుగా ముత్యాల హారతులెత్తెరుగా
    నారీ మణులకు వారము యౌవన
    వారకమొసగెడు వారిజాక్షునికి (గ)

    చ4. పూజలు సేయరుగా మనసార పూజలు సేయరుగా
    జాజులు మరి విరివాజులు దవనము
    రాజిత త్యాగరాజ నుతునికి (గ)


    Kannada

    ಪ. ಗಂಧಮು ಪುಯ್ಯರುಗಾ ಪನ್ನೀರು ಗಂಧಮು ಪುಯ್ಯರುಗಾ

    ಅ. ಅಂದಮೈನ ಯದು ನಂದನುಪೈ
    ಕುಂದ ರದನಲಿರವೊಂದಗ ಪರಿಮಳ (ಗ)

    ಚ1. ತಿಲಕಮು ದಿದ್ದೆರುಗಾ ಕಸ್ತೂರಿ ತಿಲಕಮು ದಿದ್ದೆರುಗಾ
    ಕಲಕಲಮನಿ ಮುಖ ಕಳ ಕನಿ ಸೊಕ್ಕುಚು
    ಪಲುಕುಲನಮೃತಮುಲೊಲಿಕೆಡು ಸ್ವಾಮಿಕಿ (ಗ)

    ಚ2. ಚೇಲಮು ಕಟ್ಟೆರುಗಾ ಬಂಗರು ಚೇಲಮು ಕಟ್ಟೆರುಗಾ
    ಮಾಲಿಮಿತೋ ಗೋಪಾಲ ಬಾಲುಲತೋ-
    ನಾಲ ಮೇಪಿನ ವಿಶಾಲ ನಯನುನಿಕಿ (ಗ)

    ಚ3. ಹಾರತುಲೆತ್ತೆರುಗಾ ಮುತ್ಯಾಲ ಹಾರತುಲೆತ್ತೆರುಗಾ
    ನಾರೀ ಮಣುಲಕು ವಾರಮು ಯೌವನ
    ವಾರಕಮೊಸಗೆಡು ವಾರಿಜಾಕ್ಷುನಿಕಿ (ಗ)

    ಚ4. ಪೂಜಲು ಸೇಯರುಗಾ ಮನಸಾರ ಪೂಜಲು ಸೇಯರುಗಾ
    ಜಾಜುಲು ಮರಿ ವಿರಿವಾಜುಲು ದವನಮು
    ರಾಜಿತ ತ್ಯಾಗರಾಜ ನುತುನಿಕಿ (ಗ)


    Malayalam


    പ. ഗന്ധമു പുയ്യരുഗാ പന്നീരു ഗന്ധമു പുയ്യരുഗാ

    അ. അന്ദമൈന യദു നന്ദനുപൈ
    കുന്ദ രദനലിരവൊന്ദഗ പരിമള (ഗ)

    ച1. തിലകമു ദിദ്ദെരുഗാ കസ്തൂരി തിലകമു ദിദ്ദെരുഗാ
    കലകലമനി മുഖ കള കനി സൊക്കുചു
    പലുകുലനമൃതമുലൊലികെഡു സ്വാമികി (ഗ)

    ച2. ചേലമു കട്ടെരുഗാ ബങ്ഗരു ചേലമു കട്ടെരുഗാ
    മാലിമിതോ ഗോപാല ബാലുലതോ-
    നാല മേപിന വിശാല നയനുനികി (ഗ)

    ച3. ഹാരതുലെത്തെരുഗാ മുത്യാല ഹാരതുലെത്തെരുഗാ
    നാരീ മണുലകു വാരമു യൌവന
    വാരകമൊസഗെഡു വാരിജാക്ഷുനികി (ഗ)

    ച4. പൂജലു സേയരുഗാ മനസാര പൂജലു സേയരുഗാ
    ജാജുലു മരി വിരിവാജുലു ദവനമു
    രാജിത ത്യാഗരാജ നുതുനികി (ഗ)


    Updated on 31 Oct 2010

    7 comments:

    Govindaswamy said...

    Dear Sri Govindan
     
    I have raised a few queries asking for clarification of  my doubts.  I got the answers for my doubts in Kalluri Satya Rama Prasad’s book.
    I know that you had been in contact with him earlier. However for your ready reference I am quoting the relevant portion.
     
    “The suffix ‘gaa ’ found at the end of every verb means ‘You do this (activity),   You do this’ ( Asking others in an apparently negative manner, but actually  asking to do it !)”.
    புய்யருகா என்றால் பூசமாட்டீர்களா என்று பொருள். இதே போல் மற்றவற்றிற்கும் பொருள் கொள்க.
     
    I found the following version of caraNam 3 with meaning.
     
    3) haaratulettarugaa, mutyaala- haaratulettarugaa
        naareemaNulaku vaaramu youvanama-
        vaariga yosageDu vaarijaakshuniki  à                      \ga\
    Offer Him myrrh & incense. Do that wonderful haarati to the Lotus-eyed One, who provides bountiful youth to virtuous ladies repeatedly.
     
    haaratulu ettarugaa – Use myrrh & incense to give haarati (swinging  a plate, wherein camphor or the like is burnt) ; mutyaala-haaratulu – here ‘ mutyaala’  is a supportive word ( a qualifier word - pearl-like) ; naareemaNulaku – to gem-like women ; vaaramu – without fail ; youvanamu + avaariga – providing youth bountifully ; osageDu – providing ;
     
     
    Regards
    Govindaswamy
     

    V Govindan said...

    Dear Sri Govindaswamy,

    The wording of the kRti 'puyyarugA' etc. are in past perfect tense. The kRti is sung as an observer - gOpis are not singing to one another. Therefore, it is not an exhortation to do something.

    In Tamil, it would be translated as 'பூசுவரன்றோ' etc. However, I preferred to translate as 'பூசினரே' etc. To that extent, I do not agree with the meaning 'பூசமாட்டீர்களா' etc.

    Regarding 'vAraka', it is clearly given so in all the books. The version 'avvAriga' is not found in any book.

    Regards,
    V Govindan

    nAradA said...

    Splendid translation in Thamizh, Govindan!.
    I have a question on caraNam 4.
    You translate kastUri as punugu in Thamizh. Actually kastUri is kastUri in Thamizh too. KastUri is obtained from a gland in deer. Punugu is obtained from civet cat. Both are fragrant. KastUri (from deer) is the equivalent of kOrOjanai (from the cow) in medicinal properties and fragrance.

    V Govindan said...

    Mr Narada,
    I agree with you. I have corrected the Tamil version as 'kastUri' (கஸ்தூரித் திலகம்). Thanks for your comments.
    V Govindan

    Raghavendrarao said...

    The Telugu and Kannada versions are full of wrong letters confusing the words. I cannot read Tamil.

    Raghavendrarao said...

    I am sorry in my earlier comment I said "full of wrong letters". I actually wanted to say didderuga etc words in all charanams should contain the vowel అ not ఎ (దిద్దరుగా).

    V Govindan said...

    Sri Raghavendra Raogaru,
    I had, in another thread, pointed out that I am not qualified in Telugu. Therefore, I go by whatever is given in the books. I have copied the books faithfully. In no book, the kind of variation, as mentioned by you, is given.
    Therefore,I cannot go beyond that.

    Your comments are there for everyone to see and they may opt to take it the way you suggested.

    With best wishes,
    V Govindan