Thursday, September 18, 2008

Thyagaraja Kriti - Enduko Nee Manasu - Raga Kalyani

Transliteration–Telugu
Transliteration as per Modified Harvard-Kyoto (HK) Convention
(including Telugu letters – Short e, Short o) -

a A i I u U
R RR lR lRR
e E ai o O au M (H or :)

(e – short E – Long o – short O – Long)

k kh g gh n/G
c ch j jh n/J (jn – as in jnAna)
T Th D Dh N
t th d dh n
p ph b bh m
y r l L v
S sh s h

endukO nI manasu-kalyANi

In the kRti ‘endukO nI manasu karagadu’ – rAga kalyANi (tALa Adi), SrI tyAgarAja pleads with the Lord to have compassion on him.

pallavi
endukO nI manasu karagadu Emi nEramO teliya


anupallavi
endu jUcina kAni daSaratha
nandanugA bhAvincina nApai (endukO)


caraNam 1
sumukhulaina(y)I lOkulu nann(a)sUyalacE jUcedaru
vimukhulai(y)entaTi vAD(a)ni bahu vidhamula dUredaru
1samukhamunaku yOgyuDu kAD(a)ni mari jUDakan(e)ncedaru
gamakamunanu rakshinceDi vAralu kAr(a)ni ninnE kOrina nApai (endukO)


caraNam 2
dhana tanaya kaLatr(A)dula jUci tamad(a)ni bhramasedaru
venuka mundu teliyani(y)A dhanikula vembaDi tirigedaru
ina kula jala nidhi sOma rAma 2nann(i)Tula sEyak(a)ni vEyyAru
manavul(a)Dugu nApaini karuNatO manninci kApADanu rAma (endukO)


caraNam 3
rAga rahita SrI rAma inta parAku sEyaka
SaraN(A)gata vatsala nammiti tAraka nAma parAtpara
tyAgarAja hRdaya sadanuD(a)ni atyantamu vEDitirA
nIvE gati(y)anucu rEyu pagalu veyyi vEla moralu peTTina nApai (endukO)


Gist

  • O SrI rAma, the Moon of the Ocean of Solar race! O Lord who is bereft of attachments (or affections)! O Lord having parental love towards those who have sought refuge! O Lord whose name carries across the Ocean of Worldly Existence! O Lord who is beyond everything!

  • Why Your mind would not be sympathetic towards me?
  • I do not know what my fault is.

    • Wherever I looked, I apprehended only as You?

  • Yet, why Your mind would not be sympathetic towards me?

    • These good natured people look at me enviously (or jealously);
    • Turning hostile, they abuse me, in various ways, as ‘much despicable person’;
    • Considering me unfit for society, they decided not to see me again;

    • Considering that, certainly, these are not the people who would protect me, I besought You alone.

  • Yet, why Your mind would not be sympathetic towards me?

    • People are confounded looking at wealth, children, wife etc as their own;
    • They wander behind those rich who are strangers;

    • I make thousands of appeals that ‘don’t make me too like this’;

  • Yet, why Your mind would not be sympathetic towards me to pardon and protect me compassionately?

    • Please do not be so much unconcerned;
    • I trusted You;
    • I very ardently prayed to you as the Lord abiding in the heart of this tyAgarAja;

    • Day and night, I made thousands and thousands of entreaties that You alone are my refuge?

  • Yet, why Your mind would not be sympathetic towards me?
  • I do not know what my fault is.



Word-by-word Meaning

pallavi
endukO nI manasu karagadu Emi nEramO teliya

Why (endukO) Your (nI) mind (manasu) would not be sympathetic (karagadu) (literally would not melt) towards me (nApai) (literally on me)? I do not know (teliya) what (Emi) my fault (nEramO) is.


anupallavi
endu jUcina kAni daSaratha
nandanugA bhAvincina nApai (endukO)

Why Your mind would not be sympatheitc towards me (nApai) who -
wherever (endu kAni) I looked (jUcina), apprehended (bhAvincina) only as You - son (nandanugA) of King daSaratha?
I do not know what my fault is.


caraNam 1
sumukhulaina-I lOkulu nannu-asUyalacE jUcedaru
vimukhulai-entaTi vADu-ani bahu vidhamula dUredaru
samukhamunaku yOgyuDu kADu-ani mari jUDakanu-encedaru
gamakamunanu rakshinceDi vAralu kAru-ani ninnE kOrina nApai (endukO)

These (I) good natured (sumukhulaina) (sumukhulainayI) people (lOkulu) look (jUcedaru) at me (nannu) enviously (or jealously) (asUyalacE) (nannasUyalacE);
(therefore, they) turning hostile (vimukhulai), abuse (dUredaru) me, in various (bahu) ways (vidhamula), as (ani) much despicable person (entaTi vADu) (literally ‘what a scum?’) (vADani);
considering me to be (ani) unfit (yOgyuDu kADu) (kADani) for society (samukhamunaku), decided (encedaru) (literally thought) not to see (jUDakanu) (jUDakanencedaru) me again (mari);
Why Your mind would not be sympathetic towards me (nApai) who, considering that, certainly (gamakamunanu), these are not the people (vAralu kAru) (kArani) who would protect (rakshinceDi) me, besought (kOrina) You alone (ninnE)?
I do not know what my fault is.


caraNam 2
dhana tanaya kaLatra-Adula jUci tamadi-ani bhramasedaru
venuka mundu teliyani-A dhanikula vembaDi tirigedaru
ina kula jala nidhi sOma rAma nannu-iTula sEyaku-ani vEyyAru
manavulu-aDugu nApaini karuNatO manninci kApADanu rAma (endukO)

People are confounded (bhramasedaru) looking at (jUci) wealth (dhana), children (tanaya) (literally son), wife (kaLatra) etc (Adula) (kaLatrAdula) as (ani) their own (tamadi) (tamadani);
they wander (tirigedaru) behind (vembaDi) those (A) rich (dhanikula) who are strangers (venuka mundu teliyani) (teliyaniyA);
O SrI rAma, the Moon (sOma) of the Ocean (jala nidhi) of Solar (ina) race (kula)!
O Lord rAma! Why Your mind would not be sympathetic towards me (nApaini) -
to pardon (manninci) and protect (kApADanu) me compassionately (karuNatO),
who makes thousands (veyyAru) of appeals (manavulu aDugu) (manavulaDugu) that (ani) ‘don’t make (sEyaku) (sEyakani) me (nannu) too like this’ (iTula) (nanniTula);
I do not know what my fault is.


caraNam 3
rAga rahita SrI rAma inta parAku sEyaka
SaraNu-Agata vatsala nammiti tAraka nAma parAtpara
tyAgarAja hRdaya sadanuDu-ani atyantamu vEDitirA
nIvE gati-anucu rEyu pagalu veyyi vEla moralu peTTina nApai (endukO)

O SrI rAma who is bereft of (rahita) attachments (or affections) (rAga)! Please do not (sEyaka) be so much (inta) unconcerned (parAku);
O Lord having parental love (vatsala) towards those who have sought (Agata) refuge (SaraNu) (SaraNAgata)!
I trusted (nammiti) You, O Lord whose name (nAma) carries across (tAraka) the Ocean of Worldly Existence!
O Lord who is beyond everything (parAtpara) (literally beyond the farthest)!
I very ardently (atyantamu) prayed (vEDitirA) to you as (ani) the Lord abiding (sadanuDu) (sadanuDani) in the heart (hRdaya) of this tyAgarAja;
Why your mind would not be sympathetic towards me (nApai) who, day (pagalu) and night (rEyu), made (peTTina) thousands and thousands (veyyi vEla) of entreaties (moralu) that (anucu) You alone (nIvE) are my refuge (gati) (gatiyanucu)?
I do not know what my fault is.


Notes –
Comments -
1 – samukhamu – This telugu word derived from Sanskrit means ‘presence’. However, the same (tatsama) tamil word means ‘assembly’ or ‘society’. In the present context, the latter meaning seems to be more appropriate.

2 – ninnu iTlu sEyaku – don’t make me like this – refers to the two statements made earlier in the caraNa.



Devanagari

ऎ,कॆ,चॆ.. - e,ke,ce..(short);
ए,के,चे.. - E,kE,cE..(long);
ऐ,कै,चै.. - ai,kai,cai..;
ऒ,कॊ,चॊ.. - o,ko,co..(short);
ओ,को,चो.. - O,kO,cO..(long);
औ,कौ,चौ.. -au,kau,cau..;

प. ऎन्दुको नी मनसु करगदु एमि नेरमो तॆलिय

अ. ऎन्दु जूचिन कानि दशरथ
नन्दनुगा भाविञ्चिन नापै (ऎ)

च1. सुमुखुलैन(यी) लोकुलु न(न्न)सूयलचे जूचॆदरु
विमुखुलै(यॆ)न्तटि वा(ड)नि बहु विधमुल दूरॆदरु
समुखमुनकु योग्युडु का(ड)नि मरि जूडक(नॆ)ञ्चॆदरु
गमकमुननु रक्षिञ्चॆडि वारलु का(र)नि निन्ने कोरिन नापै (ऎ)

च2. धन तनय कळ(त्रा)दुल जूचि तम(द)नि भ्रमसॆदरु
वॆनुक मुन्दु तॆलियनि(या) धनिकुल वॆम्बडि तिरिगॆदरु
इन कुल जल निधि सोम राम न(न्नि)टुल सेय(क)नि वॆय्यारु
मनवु(ल)डुगु नापैनि करुणतो मन्निञ्चि कापाडनु राम (ऎ)

च3. राग रहित श्री राम इन्त पराकु सेयक
शर(णा)गत वत्सल नम्मिति तारक नाम परात्पर
त्यागराज हृदय सदनु(ड)नि अत्यन्तमु वेडितिरा
नीवे गति(य)नुचु रेयु पगलु वॆय्यि वेल मॊरलु पॆट्टिन नापै (ऎ)


Tamil


க,ச,ட,த,ப - 2-ख छ ठ थ फ; 3-ग ड द ब; 4-घ झ ढ ध भ
(ச3 - ஜ)
ஸ1 श - शिव - சிவன்
ரு2 ऋ - कृप - கிருபை

ப. எந்து3கோ நீ மனஸு கரக3து3 ஏமி நேரமோ தெலிய

அ. எந்து3 ஜூசின கானி த3ஸ1ரத2
நந்த3னுகா3 பா4விஞ்சின நாபை (எ)

ச1. ஸுமுகு2லைன(யீ) லோகுலு நன்(ன)ஸூயலசே ஜூசெத3ரு
விமுகு2லை(யெ)ந்தடி வா(ட3)னி ப3ஹு வித4முல தூ3ரெத3ரு
ஸமுக2முனகு யோக்3யுடு3 கா(ட3)னி மரி ஜூட3க(னெ)ஞ்செத3ரு
க3மகமுனனு ரக்ஷிஞ்செடி3 வாரலு கா(ர)னி நின்னே கோரின நாபை (எ)

ச2. த4ன தனய களத்(ரா)து3ல ஜூசி தம(த3)னி ப்4ரமஸெத3ரு
வெனுக முந்து3 தெலியனி(யா) த4னிகுல வெம்ப3டி3 திரிகெ3த3ரு
இன குல ஜல நிதி4 ஸோம ராம நன்(னி)டுல ஸேய(க)னி வெய்யாரு
மனவு(ல)டு3கு3 நாபைனி கருணதோ மன்னிஞ்சி காபாட3னு ராம (எ)

ச3. ராக3 ரஹித ஸ்ரீ ராம இந்த பராகு ஸேயக
ஸ1ர(ணா)க3த வத்ஸல நம்மிதி தாரக நாம பராத்பர
த்யாக3ராஜ ஹ்ரு2த3ய ஸத3னு(ட3)னி அத்யந்தமு வேடி3திரா
நீவே க3தி(ய)னுசு ரேயு பக3லு வெய்யி வேல மொரலு பெட்டின நாபை (எ)

ஏனோ உனதுள்ளம் உருகாது? என்ன தவறோ அறியேனே!

எங்கு நோக்கினாலும் தசரதன்
மைந்தனாக எண்ணிக்கொண்ட என்மீது
ஏனோ உனதுள்ளம் உருகாது? என்ன தவறோ அறியேனே!

1. நல்லோரான இம்மக்கள் என்னை எரிச்சலுடன் நோக்கினர்;
வேண்டாதவராகி 'எப்படிப்பட்டவன்' என பல விதமாகத் தூற்றினர்;
சமூகத்திற்கு உகந்தவன் அல்லன் என, திரும்ப காணலாகாதென, எண்ணினர்;
(இவர்கள்) உறுதியாகக் காப்பாற்றுவோர் அல்லரென்று உன்னையே கோரிய என்மீது
ஏனோ உனதுள்ளம் உருகாது? என்ன தவறோ அறியேனே!

2. செல்வம், மனைவி, மக்கள் ஆகியவற்றினைக் கண்டு, தமதெனக் குழம்பினர்;
முன்பின் அறியாத அந்த செல்வந்தர்களைப் பின்தொடர்ந்துத் திரிந்தனர்;
பரிதிகுலக் கடலின் மதியே, இராமா! என்னையும் இங்ஙனம் செய்யாதேயென, ஓராயிரம்
விண்ணப்பங்கள் செய்யும் என்மீது, கருணையுடன் மன்னித்துக் காப்பதற்கு, இராமா!
ஏனோ உனதுள்ளம் உருகாது? என்ன தவறோ அறியேனே!

3. பற்றற்றோனே, இராமா! இத்தனை அசட்டை செய்யாதே;
சரணடைந்தோரிடம் கனிவுடையோனே! நம்பினேன், தாரக நாமத்தோனே! பராபரனே!
தியாகராசனின் இதயத்துறைவோனென அளவின்றி வேண்டினேனய்யா;
நீயே புகலென, இரவு பகலாக, ஆயிரமாயிரம் முறைகளிட்ட, என்மீது
ஏனோ உனதுள்ளம் உருகாது? என்ன தவறோ அறியேனே!

தசரதன் மைந்தன் - ராமன்
தாரக நாமம் - பிறவிக் கடலைக் கடத்துவிப்பது 'ராம' எனும் நாமம்


Telugu

ప. ఎందుకో నీ మనసు కరగదు ఏమి నేరమో తెలియ

అ. ఎందు జూచిన కాని దశరథ
నందనుగా భావించిన నాపై (ఎ)

చ1. సుముఖులైనయీ లోకులు నన్నసూయలచే జూచెదరు
విముఖులైయెంతటి వాడని బహు విధముల దూరెదరు
సముఖమునకు యోగ్యుడు కాడని మరి జూడకనెంచెదరు
గమకమునను రక్షించెడి వారలు కారని నిన్నే కోరిన నాపై (ఎ)

చ2. ధన తనయ కళత్రాదుల జూచి తమదని భ్రమసెదరు
వెనుక ముందు తెలియనియా ధనికుల వెంబడి తిరిగెదరు
ఇన కుల జల నిధి సోమ రామ నన్నిటుల సేయకని వెయ్యారు
మనవులడుగు నాపైని కరుణతో మన్నించి కాపాడను రామ (ఎ)

చ3. రాగ రహిత శ్రీ రామ ఇంత పరాకు సేయక
శరణాగత వత్సల నమ్మితి తారక నామ పరాత్పర
త్యాగరాజ హృదయ సదనుడని అత్యంతము వేడితిరా
నీవే గతియనుచు రేయు పగలు వెయ్యి వేల మొరలు పెట్టిన నాపై (ఎ)



Kannada

ಪ. ಎಂದುಕೋ ನೀ ಮನಸು ಕರಗದು ಏಮಿ ನೇರಮೋ ತೆಲಿಯ

ಅ. ಎಂದು ಜೂಚಿನ ಕಾನಿ ದಶರಥ
ನಂದನುಗಾ ಭಾವಿಂಚಿನ ನಾಪೈ (ಎ)

ಚ1. ಸುಮುಖುಲೈನಯೀ ಲೋಕುಲು ನನ್ನಸೂಯಲಚೇ ಜೂಚೆದರು
ವಿಮುಖುಲೈಯೆಂತಟಿ ವಾಡನಿ ಬಹು ವಿಧಮುಲ ದೂರೆದರು
ಸಮುಖಮುನಕು ಯೋಗ್ಯುಡು ಕಾಡನಿ ಮರಿ ಜೂಡಕನೆಂಚೆದರು
ಗಮಕಮುನನು ರಕ್ಷಿಂಚೆಡಿ ವಾರಲು ಕಾರನಿ ನಿನ್ನೇ ಕೋರಿನ ನಾಪೈ (ಎ)

ಚ2. ಧನ ತನಯ ಕಳತ್ರಾದುಲ ಜೂಚಿ ತಮದನಿ ಭ್ರಮಸೆದರು
ವೆನುಕ ಮುಂದು ತೆಲಿಯನಿಯಾ ಧನಿಕುಲ ವೆಂಬಡಿ ತಿರಿಗೆದರು
ಇನ ಕುಲ ಜಲ ನಿಧಿ ಸೋಮ ರಾಮ ನನ್ನಿಟುಲ ಸೇಯಕನಿ ವೆಯ್ಯಾರು
ಮನವುಲಡುಗು ನಾಪೈನಿ ಕರುಣತೋ ಮನ್ನಿಂಚಿ ಕಾಪಾಡನು ರಾಮ (ಎ)

ಚ3. ರಾಗ ರಹಿತ ಶ್ರೀ ರಾಮ ಇಂತ ಪರಾಕು ಸೇಯಕ
ಶರಣಾಗತ ವತ್ಸಲ ನಮ್ಮಿತಿ ತಾರಕ ನಾಮ ಪರಾತ್ಪರ
ತ್ಯಾಗರಾಜ ಹೃದಯ ಸದನುಡನಿ ಅತ್ಯಂತಮು ವೇಡಿತಿರಾ
ನೀವೇ ಗತಿಯನುಚು ರೇಯು ಪಗಲು ವೆಯ್ಯಿ ವೇಲ ಮೊರಲು ಪೆಟ್ಟಿನ ನಾಪೈ (ಎ)



Malayalam


പ. എന്ദുകോ നീ മനസു കരഗദു ഏമി നേരമോ തെലിയ

അ. എന്ദു ജൂചിന കാനി ദശരഥ
നന്ദനുഗാ ഭാവിഞ്ചിന നാപൈ (എ)

ച1. സുമുഖുലൈനയീ ലോകുലു നന്നസൂയലചേ ജൂചെദരു
വിമുഖുലൈയെന്തടി വാഡനി ബഹു വിധമുല ദൂരെദരു
സമുഖമുനകു യോഗ്യുഡു കാഡനി മരി ജൂഡകനെഞ്ചെദരു
ഗമകമുനനു രക്ഷിഞ്ചെഡി വാരലു കാരനി നിന്നേ കോരിന നാപൈ (എ)

ച2. ധന തനയ കളത്രാദുല ജൂചി തമദനി ഭ്രമസെദരു
വെനുക മുന്ദു തെലിയനിയാ ധനികുല വെമ്ബഡി തിരിഗെദരു
ഇന കുല ജല നിധി സോമ രാമ നന്നിടുല സേയകനി വെയ്യാരു
മനവുലഡുഗു നാപൈനി കരുണതോ മന്നിഞ്ചി കാപാഡനു രാമ (എ)

ച3. രാഗ രഹിത ശ്രീ രാമ ഇന്ത പരാകു സേയക
ശരണാഗത വത്സല നമ്മിതി താരക നാമ പരാത്പര
ത്യാഗരാജ ഹൃദയ സദനുഡനി അത്യന്തമു വേഡിതിരാ
നീവേ ഗതിയനുചു രേയു പഗലു വെയ്യി വേല മൊരലു പെട്ടിന നാപൈ (എ)


Updated on 23 May 2010

4 comments:

Raghu said...

Dear Sri Govindan
For ‘sumukhulaina I lOkulu’ you had given the meaning as these good natured people. To me there seems to be an apparent contradiction. In continuation of our earlier exchange I found the meaning ‘vidvAmsuDu’ for this word, which probably means musician/composer etc.
Envy/ jealousy from such persons was but to be expected as they could not reach the high level of tyAgarAjA.
Regars
Govindaswamy

V Govindan said...

Dear Sri Govindaswamy,

In my humble opinion, there is no way that we can derive meaning 'vidvamsuDu' for 'sumukha'.

This kRti, like many others, are very contextual. We do not know in what context, SrI tyAgarAja sang this song. Therefore, we have to go by the given wordings and within the overall intent of the kRti.

Further, SrI tyAgarAja states, 'these are not certainly the people who are going to protect me'. Looking from this context, 'vidvamsuDu' may not be appropriate, because, rival vidwans are not going to protect tyAgarAja.

Therefore, from the overall intent, I am of the opinion, it is wrong to adopt meaning 'vidvamsuDu' for 'sumukha'.

Regards,
V Govindan

Govindaswamy said...

Dear Sri Govindan
This morning I listened to Priya Sisters singing this kriti. They sang the first line as 'endukO nI manasu karugadu'. karigi, karagalEdu,and karigindi are in normal use. Since they are from Andhra I am wondering about this usage which I have not come across so far. Please comment.
Regards
Govindaswamy

V Govindan said...

Dear Sri Govindaswamy,
In Telugu, 'a' and 'u' are interchangeably used in many words. In this case also, the same is true. Please refer to Telugu Dictionary - link given below.
http://dsalsrv02.uchicago.edu/cgi-bin/romadict.pl?query=karagu&table=brown
With best regards,
V Govindan