Tuesday, October 09, 2007

Thyagaraja Kriti - Ksheenamai - Raga Mukhari

Transliteration–Telugu _______________________________________________________
Transliteration as per Modified Harvard-Kyoto (HK) Convention
(including Telugu letters – Short e, Short o) -

a A i I u U
R RR lR lRR
e E ai o O au M (H or :)

(e – short E – Long o – short O – Long)

k kh g gh n/G
c ch j jh n/J (jn – as in jnAna)
T Th D Dh N
t th d dh n
p ph b bh m
y r l L v
S sh s h

kshINamai-mukhAri

In the kRti ‘kshINamai tiruga’ – rAga mukhAri, SrI tyAgarAja exhorts his mind to resort to chanting of name of Lord and avoid the temptation of siddhis.

P 1kshINamai tiruga janmincE
2siddhi mAnurA O manasA

A 3(gIr)vANa nATak(4A)lankAra vEda
purAna yajna japa tap(A)dula 5phalamulu (kshINa)

C 6edi jEsina jagan-nAthuDu Siramuna
hRdayamuna 7vahinci
padilamaina sat-padamun(o)sangE
bATa tyAgarAja vinutuni bhajanarA (kshINa)

Gist
O My Mind!
Refrain from the (eight-fold) siddhis which, having withered, cause one to be born again.

Refrain from the siddhis which makes the fruits of (knowledge of) literature, music, drama, ornamentation, vEda, purANa and (fruits of) sacrificial oblations, repetition of mantras, penances etc to wither away and cause one to be born again.

The path that confers the eternal state of liberation is chanting the names of the Lord well-praised of this tyAgarAja; therefore, whatever the Lord of Universe might do (to You), totally acquiescing intellectually and emotionally, refrain from the siddhis.

Word-by-word Meaning

P O My Mind (manasA)! Refrain from (mAnurA) the (eight-fold) siddhis which, having withered (kshINamai), cause one to be born (janmincE) again (tiruga).

A O My Mind! Refrain from the (eight-fold) siddhis which -
makes the fruits (phalamulu) of (knowledge of) literature (gIr), music (vANa), drama (nATaka), ornamentation (alankAra) (nATakAlankAra), vEda, purANa and (fruits of) sacrificial oblations (yajna), repetition of mantras (japa), penances (tapa) etc (Adula) (tapAdula) to wither away and
cause one to be born again.

C The path (bATa) that confers (osangE) the eternal (padilamaina) state of liberation (sat-padamunu) (satpadamunosangE) is
chanting the names (bhajanarA) of the Lord well-praised (vinuta) (vinutuni) of this tyAgarAja; therefore,
whatever (edi) the Lord of Universe (jagan-nathuDu) might do (to You) (jEsina), totally acquiescing (vahinci) (literally bearing) intellectually (Siramuna) (literally head) and emotionally (hRdayamuna) (literally heart),
O My Mind! refrain from the (eight-fold) siddhis which, having withered, cause one to be born again.

Notes –
Variations –

References –
2 – siddhi – Eight-Fold siddhi - aNiman – become minute as atom; laghiman – extreme lightness; prApti – reach anything (moon with the tip of finger); prAkAmya – irresistible will; mahiman – illimitable bulk; ISitA – supreme dominion; vaSitA – subjugating by magic; kAmAvaSAyitA – suppressing all desires : Source – Monier’s Sanskrit Dictionary.

aNiman, laghiman, prApti, prakAmya, mahiman, ISitA and vaSitA and garimA – making oneself heavy at will – Source tamizh pingala nigaNDu.

Please refer to SrImad bhAgavataM, Book 11, Chapter 15 (generally known as uddhava gIta), wherein eight primary siddhis and another 10 secondary siddhis are mentioned.

Please also refer to Patanjali Yoga Sutras (Chapter 3 – Powers).

2 – siddhi mAnurA - In the ibid (SrImad bhAgavataM) reference, it also stated that these siddhis are indeed obstacles to the emancipation. The following verses are relevant–

upAsakasya mAmEvaM yOgadhAraNayA munEH
siddhayaH pUrvakathitA upatishThantyaSEshataH 31
antarAyAn vadantyEtA yunjatO yOgamuttamaM
mayA sampadyamAnasya kAlakshapaNahEtavaH 33

kRshNa said -
“The aforesaid siddhis in their entirety wait upon the sage who worships Me through yOgic concentration as detailed in the foregoing verses.”

“Learned experts in devotional service state that the mystic perfections of yoga that I have mentioned are actually impediments and are a waste of time for one who is practicing the supreme yoga, by which one achieves all perfection in life directly from Me.”

4 – alankAra – Ornamentation – This pervades each and every field of Indian poetry, drama, music, philosophy, visual arts, literary criticism. For a brief on alankAra - Ornamentation

Comments -
1 – kshINamai – In the pallavi, the word standing alone, would mean ‘they (siddhis) wither away’ or it might refer to the withering away of the body; in the anu-pallavi, combined with the word ‘phalamulu’ it would mean ‘the fruits wither away’. When joining with the caraNa word 'vahinci' to pallavi, kshINamai would have similar meaning as that of pallavi – stand alone.

3 – gIr vANa – This word appears in the kRti ‘amba ninu’ – rAga Arabhi where it means ‘celestials’ (gIrvANa gaNAdhAri). It also appears in the kRti ‘SrI rAma rAma jagadAtma rAma’ rAga pUrNacandrika, where also it means ‘celestials’ (gIrvANa muni vandya).

In the present context such a meaning is not suitable. This word has been used in the dIkshitar kRiti ‘gIti cakra ratha sthitAyai’ and SyAmA SAstri kRti ‘pArvati ninnu nera’ to mean ‘sarasvati’. In the book of CR and TSV/AKG, this word has been translated as ‘saMskRta’; in the book of TKG, this has been translated as ‘literature and poetry’.

However, the word ‘gIr’ has been given brackets in all the books.According to musically knowledgeable people, (gir) in brackets, indicates that it belongs to previous tALa Avarti.

‘gIr’, (telugu ‘gira’) among others,means ‘language’, ‘speech’, ‘words’. The saMskRta word ‘vANa’ means music. This also corresponds to the tamizh word ‘bANar’ (a morph of vANa) – meaning’ musician’. ‘gIr vAna’ in conjunction with the following word ‘nATaka’ seems to correspond to tamizh triad (muttamizh) – iyal, isai, nADagaM – prose, music and drama.

5 – phalamulu - In all the books the meanings derived of the anu-pallavi is that the ‘fruits of saMskRta, drama, alankAra, vEda, purANa, yajna and penance wither away’. As ‘phalamulu’ of anu-pallavi is to be joined with pallavi ‘kshINamai’, it is clear that it is the ‘siddhis’ which causes the fruits to wither away.

6 – edi jEsina jagannAthuDu Siramuna hRdayamuna vahinci – In this regard, please refer to kRti ‘bhuvini dAsuDanE’ rAga SrIranjani – wherein SrI tyAgarAja states – ‘pAla muncina nITa muncina padamulE gati’ – whether you give me comforts or troubles, You feet alone are my refuge’.

This exhortation is to be seen in the light of the statement of SrI kRshNa quoted above – that these siddhis are waiting upon one who worships Lord. Therefore, any temptation to use these siddhis for personal and material gains might prove to be counter-productive for the worshipper and hence shunned.

The same is found reflected in tirumandiram of tirumUlar (tamizh work) –
By ashtanga yoga eight siddhis are attained (669); Siddhis lead to Mukti only by Sakti's Grace (670); Beyond Siddhis is True Goal (671); Siddhis lead to Kamiya Loka (672); Samadhi transcends siddhis (631) (The yogi who attains samadhi, does not seek the eight siddhis. He transcends them. He walks with God. He becomes one with the God.) (Translation by Dr B Natarajan). tirumUlar - tirumandiram (tamizh) verses and meanings

Please also refer to a detailed discussion on the subject in the notes of tyAgaraja kRti 'kRpAlavAla' rAga nAdavarAngiNi

7 – vahinci – this is common for both for ‘Siramuna’ and ‘hRdayamuna’.


Devanagari

ऎ,कॆ,चॆ.. - e,ke,ce..(short);
ए,के,चे.. - E,kE,cE..(long);
ऐ,कै,चै.. - ai,kai,cai..;
ऒ,कॊ,चॊ.. - o,ko,co..(short);
ओ,को,चो.. - O,kO,cO..(long);
औ,कौ,चौ.. -au,kau,cau..;

प. क्षीणमै तिरुग जन्मिञ्चे
सिद्धि मानुरा ओ मनसा

अ. गीर्वाण नाट(का)लंकार वेद
पुराण यज्ञ जप त(पा)दुल फलमुलु (क्षीण)

च. ऎदि जेसिन जग(न्ना)थुडु शिरमुन
हृदयमुन वहिञ्चि
पदिलमैन सत्पदमु(नॊ)संगे
बाट त्यागराज विनुतुनि भजनरा (क्षीण)

Tamil

க,ச,ட,த,ப - 2-ख छ ठ थ फ; 3-ग ड द ब; 4-घ झ ढ ध भ
(ச3 - ஜ)
ஸ1 श - शिव - சிவன்
ரு2 ऋ - कृप - கிருபை

ப. க்ஷீணமை திருக3 ஜன்மிஞ்சே
ஸித்3தி4 மானுரா ஓ மனஸா

அ. கீ3ர்-வாண நாட(கா)லங்கார வேத3
புராண யக்3ஞ ஜப த(பா)து3ல ப2லமுலு (க்ஷீண)

ச. எதி3 ஜேஸின ஜக3ந்-நாது2டு3 ஸி1ரமுன
ஹ்ரு2த3யமுன வஹிஞ்சி
பதி3லமைன ஸத்பத3மு(னொ)ஸங்கே3
பா3ட த்யாக3ராஜ வினுதுனி ப4ஜனரா (க்ஷீண)

தளர்ந்து, மீண்டும் பிறப்பிக்கும்
சித்திகளைத் தவிர்ப்பாய், ஓ மனமே!

இயல், இசை, நாடகம், அணியிலக்கணம், மறைகள்,
புராணம், வேள்வி, செபம், தவம் ஆகியவற்றின் பயன்கள்
தளர்ந்து, மீண்டும் பிறப்பிக்கும்
சித்திகளைத் தவிர்ப்பாய், ஓ மனமே!

நிலையான நற்பதமளிக்கும்
நெறி தியாகராசனால் போற்றப் பெற்றோனின் பஜனையடா!
உலக நாயகன் என்செயினும், தலையிலும்,
உள்ளத்திலும் வகித்து,
தளர்ந்து, மீண்டும் பிறப்பிக்கும்
சித்திகளைத் தவிர்ப்பாய், ஓ மனமே!

சித்திகள் - அணிமா முதலான எண்சித்திகள்

Telugu

ప. క్షీణమై తిరుగ జన్మించే
సిద్ధి మానురా ఓ మనసా

అ. గీర్వాణ నాటకాలంకార వేద
పురాణ యజ్ఞ జప తపాదుల ఫలములు (క్షీణ)

చ. ఎది జేసిన జగన్నాథుడు శిరమున
హృదయమున వహించి
పదిలమైన సత్పదమునొసంగే
బాట త్యాగరాజ వినుతుని భజనరా (క్షీణ)


Kannada

ಪ. ಕ್ಷೀಣಮೈ ತಿರುಗ ಜನ್ಮಿಂಚೇ
ಸಿದ್ಧಿ ಮಾನುರಾ ಓ ಮನಸಾ

ಅ. ಗೀರ್ವಾಣ ನಾಟಕಾಲಂಕಾರ ವೇದ
ಪುರಾಣ ಯಜ್ಞ ಜಪ ತಪಾದುಲ ಫಲಮುಲು (ಕ್ಷೀಣ)

ಚ. ಎದಿ ಜೇಸಿನ ಜಗನ್ನಾಥುಡು ಶಿರಮುನ
ಹೃದಯಮುನ ವಹಿಂಚಿ
ಪದಿಲಮೈನ ಸತ್ಪದಮುನೊಸಂಗೇ
ಬಾಟ ತ್ಯಾಗರಾಜ ವಿನುತುನಿ ಭಜನರಾ (ಕ್ಷೀಣ)

Malayalam

പ. ക്ഷീണമൈ തിരുഗ ജന്മിഞ്ചേ
സിദ്ധി മാനുരാ ഓ മനസാ

അ. ഗീര്വാണ നാടകാലങ്കാര വേദ
പുരാണ യജ്ഞ ജപ തപാദുല ഫലമുലു (ക്ഷീണ)

ച. എദി ജേസിന ജഗന്നാഥുഡു ശിരമുന
ഹൃദയമുന വഹിഞ്ചി
പദിലമൈന സത്പദമുനൊസങ്ഗേ
ബാട ത്യാഗരാജ വിനുതുനി ഭജനരാ (ക്ഷീണ)

Updated on 06 Mar 2009

2 comments:

Anonymous said...

Thankyou for the wonderful translation and lyrics in different languages.It is very useful.

Ananth said...

Thank you for the excellent translation.

I just heard an excellent rendition of this song by Dr. Semmangudi Srinivasa Iyer from a 1956 concert(frequently referred to as Airport Concert). It was spectacular....