Monday, September 29, 2008

Thyagaraja Kriti - Rama Rama Rama Napai - Raga Kalyani

Transliteration–Telugu
Transliteration as per Modified Harvard-Kyoto (HK) Convention
(including Telugu letters – Short e, Short o) -

a A i I u U
R RR lR lRR
e E ai o O au M (H or :)

(e – short E – Long o – short O – Long)

k kh g gh n/G
c ch j jh n/J (jn – as in jnAna)
T Th D Dh N
t th d dh n
p ph b bh m
y r l L v
S sh s h

rAma rAma rAma nApai-kalyANi

In the kRti ‘rAma rAma rAma nApai’ – rAga kalyANi (tALa miSra cApu), SrI tyAgarAja pleads with Lord to have compassion on him citing many examples.

pallavi
rAma rAma rAma nApai nI daya
rAka(y)uNDavaccunA O rAma


caraNam 1
tanayuni E 1jAti(y)aina brOvani
talliyu bhuvini kaladA O rAma (rAma)


caraNam 2
2tanaku tAnu vancana cEsukonu
dhanavantuDu 3kalaDA O rAma (rAma)


caraNam 3
ilanu niScayamuga nIvu lEni
tAv(e)ndainanu kaladA O rAma (rAma)


caraNam 4
sutuni mATaku talli taNDrulu
asUya paDuTa kaladA O rAma (rAma)


caraNam 5
4brahma nishThuDain(a)TTi(y)A ghanuniki
prabala vancana kaladA O rAma (rAma)


caraNam 6
tolli jEyu karmam(5a)nubhivimpakanu
tOyuvAru kalarA O rAma (rAma)


caraNam 7
6kanaka taruNul(A)sa lEni saMsArulu
kalal(ai)nanu kalarA O rAma (rAma)


caraNam 8
nirvikAra SrI tyAgarAjuniki
ninnu vinA kalarA O rAma (rAma)


Gist

O Lord rAma! O Immutable Lord!

  • Is it appropriate for You not to have mercy on me?
    • Be it any species, is there a mother on the Earth who would not protect her offspring?
    • Is there a richman who would deceive himself?
    • Is there, certainly, a place on this Earth where You are not there?
    • Is it possible for parents to hate utterances of their child?
    • Could there be any infamous deceit for such a great person who is ever absorbed in the Supreme Self?
    • Are there persons who could escape without experiencing the results of past actions?
    • Are there house-holders, even in dreams, who do not have desire for gold and women? (OR) Are there house-holders who do not have desire for gold and women even in dreams?
    • Is there anyone to this tyAgarAja other than You?

  • Is it appropriate for You not to have mercy on me?



Word-by-word Meaning

pallavi
rAma rAma rAma nApai nI daya
rAka-uNDavaccunA O rAma

O Lord rAma! Is it appropriate (uNDavaccunA) for You (nI) not to have (rAka) mercy (daya) (rAkayuNDavaccunA) on me (nApai)?


caraNam 1
tanayuni E jAti-aina brOvani
talliyu bhuvini kaladA O rAma (rAma)

O Lord rAma! Be it (aina) any (E) species (jAti) (jAtiyaina), is there (kaladA) a mother (talliyu) on the Earth (bhuvini) who would not protect (brOvani) her offspring (tanayuni) (literally son)?
O Lord rAma! Is it appropriate for You not to have mercy on me?


caraNam 2
tanaku tAnu vancana cEsukonu
dhanavantuDu kalaDA O rAma (rAma)

O Lord rAma! Is there (kalaDA) a richman (dhanavantuDu) who would deceive (vancana cEsukonu) himself (tanaku tAnu)?
O Lord rAma! Is it appropriate for You not to have mercy on me?


caraNam 3
ilanu niScayamuga nIvu lEni
tAvu-endainanu kaladA O rAma (rAma)

O Lord rAma! Is there (kaladA), certainly (niScayamuga), a place (tAvu) anywhere (endainanu) (tAvendainanu) on this Earth (ilanu) where You (nIvu) are not (lEni) there?
O Lord rAma! Is it appropriate for You not to have mercy on me?


caraNam 4
sutuni mATaku talli taNDrulu
asUya paDuTa kaladA O rAma (rAma)

O Lord rAma! Is it possible (kaladA) for parents (talli taNDrulu) to hate (asUya paDuTa) utterances (mATaku) of their child (sutuni) (literally son)?
O Lord rAma! Is it appropriate for You not to have mercy on me?


caraNam 5
brahma nishThuDaina-aTTi-A ghanuniki
prabala vancana kaladA O rAma (rAma)

O Lord rAma! Could there be (kaladA) any infamous (prabala) deceit (vancana) for such a (aTTi A) great person (ghanuniki) who is ever absorbed in the Supreme Self (brahma nishThuDu) (brahma nishThuDainaTTiyA)?
O Lord rAma! Is it appropriate for You not to have mercy on me?


caraNam 6
tolli jEyu karmam(5a)nubhivimpakanu
tOyuvAru kalarA O rAma (rAma)

O Lord rAma! Are there (kalarA) persons who could escape (tOyuvAru) (literally pass off) without experiencing (anubhavimpakanu) the results of actions (karmamu) (karmamanubhavimpakanu) done (jEyu) in the past (tolli)?
O Lord rAma! Is it appropriate for You not to have mercy on me?


caraNam 7
kanaka taruNula-Asa lEni saMsArulu
kalalu-ainanu kalarA O rAma (rAma)

O Lord rAma! Are there (kalarA) house-holders (saMsArulu), even in (ainanu) dreams (kalalu) (kalalainanu), who do not have (lEni) desire (Asa) for gold (kanaka) and women (taruNulu) (taruNulAsa)? (OR) Are there (kalarA) house-holders (saMsArulu) who do not have (lEni) desire (Asa) for gold (kanaka) and women (taruNulu) (taruNulAsa) even in (ainanu) dreams (kalalu) (kalalainanu)?
O Lord rAma! Is it appropriate for You not to have mercy on me?


caraNam 8
nirvikAra SrI tyAgarAjuniki
ninnu vinA kalarA O rAma (rAma)

O Immutable Lord (nirvikAra)! Is there anyone (kalarA) to this tyAgarAja (SrI tyAgarAja) other than (vinA) You (ninnu)?
O Lord rAma! Is it appropriate for You not to have mercy on me?


Notes –
Variations
3 – kalaDA – galadA.

5 – anubhavimpakanu – anubhavincakanu.

Comments -
1 – jAtiyaina – Here, ‘caste’ as is generally understood, is not meant.

2 – tanaku tAnu – The implication is that ‘I belong to You and if Your mercy does not come, then it would amount to deceiving Yourself (tanaku tAnu)’.

4 - brahma nishThuDainaTTi – a person who is absorbed in the Supreme Self has crossed over all possible delusions. Therefore, there cannot be any such deceit. But, at mundane level, there may be set backs which would not, in any case, matter to such a person. I feel that the word ‘prabala’ has been introduced by SrI tyAgarAja to differentiate this. (‘prabala’ would take positive or negative meanings depending on the word it qualifies. Therefore, it has been translated as ‘infamous’ to correspond to ‘deceit’.) However, I am not very clear as to whom SrI tyAgarAja refers as ‘brahma nishTha’ and how the comparison is to be reconciled with the statement that ‘it is not correct for the Lord not to have compassion on him’. Is he referring to himself as ‘brahma nishTha’?

6 - kanaka taruNulAsa kalalainanu lEni – This can be interpreted in two ways ‘Are there house-holders, even in dreams, who do not have desire for gold and women’; or ‘are there house-holders who do not have desire for gold and women even in dreams’. The placement of the word ‘kalalainanu’ is such that it would normally result in the former translation. However, for the reasons stated below, the latter version seems to be more appropriate.

In case the latter version is adopted, then SrI tyAgarAja, who has eschewed all Worldly desires (in waking state), might be subject to certain delusions in the dreams (svapna) because of the vAsanAs. This, he wants the Lord to ignore.

In case the former version is adopted, the purport of is not very clear. Does SrI tyAgarAja say that he is also a house-holder and the Lord should not take cognizance of his desire for wealth and wife? May not be, because in many kRtis, he says that he has no desires at all in this World – ‘vaddanE vAru lEru’ – rAga shaNmukhapriya refers.

However, we should keep in mind that the kRtis of SrI tyAgarAja are, in fact, a dialogue with Lord rAma which he carried out throughout his life. Therefore, the kRti may also be part of evolutionary tyAgarAja.

Alternatively, this kRti may belong to the category of ‘self depreciation’ – Atma garhaNa as described by Dr V Raghavan, in his Introductory Thesis to the book ‘The Spiritual Heritage of Tyagaraja’ by Sri C Ramanujachariar. ‘Atma garhaNa’

Adi Sankara, in his ‘SivAnanda lahari’ states –

sadA mOhATavyAM carati yuvatInAM kuca-girau
naTatyASA-SAkhAs-vaTati jhaTiti svairam-abhitaH
kapAlin bhikshO mE hRdaya-kapim-atyanta capalaM
dRDhaM bhaktyA baddhvA Siva bhavad-adhInam kuru vibhO 20

“O Lord! Thou that bearest a skull in hand! Thou mendicant! Thou auspicious and all-pervading one! Accepting this monkey of my mind as my devout offering, bind it with (the cord of) devotion and bring it under Thy control – this extremely wayward monkey that always wanders in the forest of ignorance, dancing on the hill-tops of young women’s breasts, and moving about quickly in diverse directions (according to its promptings) along the branches of worldly desires.” (Translation by Swami Tapasyananda)

Adi Sankara, being a brahma nishTha, would not have had such a wavering mind. For the benefit of disciples and devotees such great souls coin such wordings assuming their roles. The caraNa 7 of present kRti may belong to this category also.



Devanagari

ऎ,कॆ,चॆ.. - e,ke,ce..(short);
ए,के,चे.. - E,kE,cE..(long);
ऐ,कै,चै.. - ai,kai,cai..;
ऒ,कॊ,चॊ.. - o,ko,co..(short);
ओ,को,चो.. - O,kO,cO..(long);
औ,कौ,चौ.. -au,kau,cau..;

प. राम राम राम नापै नी दय
राक(यु)ण्डवच्चुना ओ राम

च1. तनयुनि ए जाति(यै)न ब्रोवनि
तल्लियु भुविनि कलदा ओ राम (राम)

च2. तनकु तानु वञ्चन चेसुकॊनु
धनवन्तुडु कलडा ओ राम (राम)

च3. इलनु निश्चयमुग नीवु लेनि
ता(वॆ)न्दैननु कलदा ओ राम (राम)

च4. सुतुनि माटकु तल्लि तण्ड्रुलु
असूय पडुट कलदा ओ राम (राम)

च5. ब्रह्म निष्ठुडै(न)ट्टि(या) घनुनिकि
प्रबल वञ्चन कलदा ओ राम (राम)

च6. तॊल्लि जेयु कर्म(म)नुभविम्पकनु
तोयुवारु कलरा ओ राम (राम)

च7. कनक तरुणु(ला)स लेनि संसारुलु
कल(लै)ननु कलरा ओ राम (राम)

च8. निर्विकार श्री त्यागराजुनिकि
निन्नु विना कलरा ओ राम (राम)


Tamil


க,ச,ட,த,ப - 2-ख छ ठ थ फ; 3-ग ड द ब; 4-घ झ ढ ध भ
(ச3 - ஜ)
ஸ1 श - शिव - சிவன்
ரு2 ऋ - कृप - கிருபை

ப. ராம ராம ராம நாபை நீ த3ய
ராக(யு)ண்ட3வச்சுனா ஓ ராம

ச1. தனயுனி ஏ ஜாதி(யை)ன ப்3ரோவனி
தல்லியு பு4வினி கலதா3 ஓ ராம (ராம)

ச2. தனகு தானு வஞ்சன சேஸுகொனு
த4னவந்துடு3 கலடா3 ஓ ராம (ராம)

ச3. இலனு நிஸ்1சயமுக3 நீவு லேனி
தா(வெ)ந்தை3னனு கலதா3 ஓ ராம (ராம)

ச4. ஸுதுனி மாடகு தல்லி தண்ட்3ருலு
அஸூய படு3ட கலதா3 ஓ ராம (ராம)

ச5. ப்3ரஹ்ம நிஷ்டு2டை3(ன)ட்டி(யா) க4னுனிகி
ப்ரப3ல வஞ்சன கலதா3 ஓ ராம (ராம)

ச6. தொல்லி ஜேயு கர்ம(ம)னுப4விம்பகனு
தோயுவாரு கலரா ஓ ராம (ராம)

ச7. கனக தருணு(லா)ஸ லேனி ஸம்ஸாருலு
கல(லை)னனு கலரா ஓ ராம (ராம)

ச8. நிர்விகார ஸ்ரீ த்யாக3ராஜுனிகி
நின்னு வினா கலரா ஓ ராம (ராம)

இராமா! இராமா! இராமா! என்மீது உனது தயை
வாராதிருக்கலாகுமா, ஓ இராமா!

1. மகவை, எந்த இனமாகிலும், காவாத
தாய், புவியினில் உண்டா? ஓ இராமா!
இராமா! இராமா! இராமா! என்மீது உனது தயை
வாராதிருக்கலாகுமா, ஓ இராமா!

2. தனக்குத் தானே வஞ்சனை செய்துகொள்ளும்
செல்வந்தன் உளனா? ஓ இராமா!
இராமா! இராமா! இராமா! என்மீது உனது தயை
வாராதிருக்கலாகுமா, ஓ இராமா!

3. இப்புவியினில், உறுதியாக, நீயில்லாத
இடம் எங்காவது உளதா? ஓ இராமா!
இராமா! இராமா! இராமா! என்மீது உனது தயை
வாராதிருக்கலாகுமா, ஓ இராமா!

4. மக்களின் சொல்லுக்கு, தாய் தந்தையர்
வெறுப்படைவதுண்டா? ஓ இராமா!
இராமா! இராமா! இராமா! என்மீது உனது தயை
வாராதிருக்கலாகுமா, ஓ இராமா!

5. பிரமத்தினில் நிலைப்போனாகிய அந்த மேலோனுக்கு,
பெரும் வஞ்சனை உண்டா? ஓ இராமா!
இராமா! இராமா! இராமா! என்மீது உனது தயை
வாராதிருக்கலாகுமா, ஓ இராமா!

6. முன் செய் வினைகளினை அனுபவிக்காது
தப்புவோருளரா? ஓ இராமா!
இராமா! இராமா! இராமா! என்மீது உனது தயை
வாராதிருக்கலாகுமா, ஓ இராமா!

7. பொன், பெண்ணாசை யற்ற சமுசாரிகள்,
கனவிலாகிலும், உளரா? ஓ இராமா!
இராமா! இராமா! இராமா! என்மீது உனது தயை
வாராதிருக்கலாகுமா, ஓ இராமா!

8. மாற்றமற்றோனே! தியாகராசனுக்கு,
உன்னையன்றி எவருமுளரா? ஓ இராமா!
இராமா! இராமா! இராமா! என்மீது உனது தயை
வாராதிருக்கலாகுமா, ஓ இராமா!

தப்புவோர் - தள்ளுவோர் எனவும் கொள்ளலாம்
சமுசாரி - உலகோர்




Telugu

ప. రామ రామ రామ నాపై నీ దయ
రాకయుండవచ్చునా ఓ రామ

చ1. తనయుని ఏ జాతియైన బ్రోవని
తల్లియు భువిని కలదా ఓ రామ (రామ)

చ2. తనకు తాను వంచన చేసుకొను
ధనవంతుడు కలడా ఓ రామ (రామ)

చ3. ఇలను నిశ్చయముగ నీవు లేని
తావెందైనను కలదా ఓ రామ (రామ)

చ4. సుతుని మాటకు తల్లి తండ్రులు
అసూయ పడుట కలదా ఓ రామ (రామ)

చ5. బ్రహ్మ నిష్ఠుడైనట్టియా ఘనునికి
ప్రబల వంచన కలదా ఓ రామ (రామ)

చ6. తొల్లి జేయు కర్మమనుభవింపకను
తోయువారు కలరా ఓ రామ (రామ)

చ7. కనక తరుణులాస లేని సంసారులు
కలలైనను కలరా ఓ రామ (రామ)

చ8. నిర్వికార శ్రీ త్యాగరాజునికి
నిన్ను వినా కలరా ఓ రామ (రామ)



Kannada

ಪ. ರಾಮ ರಾಮ ರಾಮ ನಾಪೈ ನೀ ದಯ
ರಾಕಯುಂಡವಚ್ಚುನಾ ಓ ರಾಮ

ಚ1. ತನಯುನಿ ಏ ಜಾತಿಯೈನ ಬ್ರೋವನಿ
ತಲ್ಲಿಯು ಭುವಿನಿ ಕಲದಾ ಓ ರಾಮ (ರಾಮ)

ಚ2. ತನಕು ತಾನು ವಂಚನ ಚೇಸುಕೊನು
ಧನವಂತುಡು ಕಲಡಾ ಓ ರಾಮ (ರಾಮ)

ಚ3. ಇಲನು ನಿಶ್ಚಯಮುಗ ನೀವು ಲೇನಿ
ತಾವೆಂದೈನನು ಕಲದಾ ಓ ರಾಮ (ರಾಮ)

ಚ4. ಸುತುನಿ ಮಾಟಕು ತಲ್ಲಿ ತಂಡ್ರುಲು
ಅಸೂಯ ಪಡುಟ ಕಲದಾ ಓ ರಾಮ (ರಾಮ)

ಚ5. ಬ್ರಹ್ಮ ನಿಷ್ಠುಡೈನಟ್ಟಿಯಾ ಘನುನಿಕಿ
ಪ್ರಬಲ ವಂಚನ ಕಲದಾ ಓ ರಾಮ (ರಾಮ)

ಚ6. ತೊಲ್ಲಿ ಜೇಯು ಕರ್ಮಮನುಭವಿಂಪಕನು
ತೋಯುವಾರು ಕಲರಾ ಓ ರಾಮ (ರಾಮ)

ಚ7. ಕನಕ ತರುಣುಲಾಸ ಲೇನಿ ಸಂಸಾರುಲು
ಕಲಲೈನನು ಕಲರಾ ಓ ರಾಮ (ರಾಮ)

ಚ8. ನಿರ್ವಿಕಾರ ಶ್ರೀ ತ್ಯಾಗರಾಜುನಿಕಿ
ನಿನ್ನು ವಿನಾ ಕಲರಾ ಓ ರಾಮ (ರಾಮ)


Malayalam


പ. രാമ രാമ രാമ നാപൈ നീ ദയ
രാകയുണ്ഡവച്ചുനാ ഓ രാമ

ച1. തനയുനി ഏ ജാതിയൈന ബ്രോവനി
തല്ലിയു ഭുവിനി കലദാ ഓ രാമ (രാമ)

ച2. തനകു താനു വഞ്ചന ചേസുകൊനു
ധനവന്തുഡു കലഡാ ഓ രാമ (രാമ)

ച3. ഇലനു നിശ്ചയമുഗ നീവു ലേനി
താവെന്ദൈനനു കലദാ ഓ രാമ (രാമ)

ച4. സുതുനി മാടകു തല്ലി തണ്ഡ്രുലു
അസൂയ പഡുട കലദാ ഓ രാമ (രാമ)

ച5. ബ്രഹ്മ നിഷ്ഠുഡൈനട്ടിയാ ഘനുനികി
പ്രബല വഞ്ചന കലദാ ഓ രാമ (രാമ)

ച6. തൊല്ലി ജേയു കര്മമനുഭവിമ്പകനു
തോയുവാരു കലരാ ഓ രാമ (രാമ)

ച7. കനക തരുണുലാസ ലേനി സംസാരുലു
കലലൈനനു കലരാ ഓ രാമ (രാമ)

ച8. നിര്വികാര ശ്രീ ത്യാഗരാജുനികി
നിന്നു വിനാ കലരാ ഓ രാമ (രാമ)


Updated on 17 Jun 2010

2 comments:

Raghu said...

Dear Sri Govindan
In caraNam 6 tolli is used for past. Is not toli the word in common use?

Instead of எவ்வமயும், எவ்வமையமும் (எச்சமயமும்) may be better.

Regards
Govindaswamy

V Govindan said...

Dear Sri Govindaswamy,

'toli' - 'tolli' mean same.

Where is 'எவ்வமயம்' given?

Regards,
V Govindan