Friday, March 28, 2008

Thyagaraja Kriti - Valla Kadanaka - Raga Sankarabharanam

Transliteration–Telugu
Transliteration as per Modified Harvard-Kyoto (HK) Convention
(including Telugu letters – Short e, Short o) -

a A i I u U
R RR lR lRR
e E ai o O au M (H or :)

(e – short E – Long o – short O – Long)

k kh g gh n/G
c ch j jh n/J (jn – as in jnAna)
T Th D Dh N
t th d dh n
p ph b bh m
y r l L v
S sh s h

valla kAdanaka-SankarAbharaNaM

In the kRti ‘valla kAdanaka’ – rAga SankarAbharaNaM (or harikAmbhOji), SrI tyAgarAja pleads with Lord not to abandon him.

pallavi
valla kAd(a)naka sItA vallabha 1brOvu nA


anupallavi
2(nI)valla nATi bhakta caritam(e)lla vrAyan(E)larA 3(valla)


caraNam
stambhamunanu taru marugunanu DimbhuDai yaSOda(y)oDini
4dambhuDai 5mucukunduni DAsi marugucu
6sambhavinci yuga yugamuna sarasa tyAgarAja vinuta
kumbhaka rEcaka vidulanu kOri brOcinAvu nA(valla)


Gist

O Consort of sItA! O sweet Lord praised by this tyAgarAja!
  • Please do not say that ‘it is not possible for me’; please protect me.

  • What for all those stories of earlier devotees were (caused to be) written because of You?

  • Having incarnated in every epoch -

    • as narasimha, inside the pillar to save prahlAda,

    • as rAma, behind a tree to save sugrIva,

    • as (kRshNa) - babe in the lap of yaSOdA, to destroy the demons sent by kaMsa and, then, kaMsa himself, and again,

    • as (kRshNa) - deceiver, approaching mucukunda by hiding, to bestow grace on him -

  • You have protected the yOgis by seeking them.



Word-by-word Meaning

pallavi
valla kAdu-anaka sItA vallabha brOvu nA

O Consort (vallabha) of sItA! Please do not say (anaka) that ‘it is not possible (kAdu) (kAdanaka) for me (nAvalla)’ (literally by me); please protect (brOvu) me.


anupallavi
nIvalla nATi bhakta caritamu-ella vrAyanu-ElarA (valla)

What for (ElarA) all (ella) those stories (caritamu) (caritamella) of earlier (nATi) devotees (bhakta) were (caused to be) written (vrAyanu) (vrAyanElarA) because of You (nIvalla)?
O Consort of sItA! Please do not say that ‘it is not possible for me’; please protect me.


caraNam
stambhamunanu taru marugunanu DimbhuDai yaSOda-oDini
dambhuDai mucukunduni DAsi marugucu
sambhavinci yuga yugamuna sarasa tyAgarAja vinuta
kumbhaka rEcaka vidulanu kOri brOcinAvu nA(valla)

O sweet (sarasa) Lord praised (vinuta) by this tyAgarAja!
Having incarnated (sambhavinci) in every epoch (yuga yugamuna) -
as narasimha, inside the pillar (stambhamunanu) to save prahlAda,
as rAma, behind (marugunanu) a tree (taru) to save sugrIva,
as (kRshNa) - babe (DimbhuDai) in the lap (oDini) of yaSOdA (yaSOdayoDini) to destroy the demons sent by kaMsa and, then, kaMsa himself, and again,
as (kRshNa) - deceiver (dambhuDai), approaching (DAsi) mucukunda (mucukunduni) by hiding (marugucu) to bestow grace on him -
You have protected (brOcinAvu) yOgis - knowers (vidulanu) of yOga – breath stopping (kumbhaka) and breath exhalation (rEcaka) – by seeking (kOri) them.
O Consort of sItA! Please do not say that ‘it is not possible for me (nAvalla)’; please protect me.


Notes –
Variations
In some books, the rAga is given as ‘harikAmbhOji.

3 – (valla) – nA(valla).

5 – mucukunduni – mukunduni - mudukunduni. However, in all the books the meaning derived in ‘mucukunda’.

References
5 – mucukunda – Son of King mAndhAta of ikshvAku dynasty - story in brief. (If the site does not open, visit Urday.com and search for Mythological Tales and select ‘Muchukunda’.)

The full story of mucukunda is contained in SrImad bhAgavataM, Book 10, Chapter 51. It is also stated that mucukunda was a devotee of Lord Siva. To know more about viDanga sthalams – temples of Lord Siva – tiruvArur is one such viDanga sthalam.

5 - sambhavinci yuga yugamuna – SrI tyAgarAja reiterates the famous words of Lord kRshNa in SrImad-bhagavad-gItA – ‘sambhavAmi yugE yugE’ (Chapter 4, Verse 8).

Comments -
1 – brOvu – This is how it is given in all books. However, from the flow of the language, it would be more appropriate if this word is ‘brOva’. In its present form, it stands separately. If it is ‘brOva’, then the translation would be ‘Please do not say that ‘It is not possible for me to protect’’.

2 – nI – the beginning word of anupallavi is given in brackets in all the books. According to musically knowledgeable people, (nI) in brackets, indicates that it belongs to previous tALa Avarti.

4 – dambhuDai mucukunduni – In all the books, it is found as ‘dambhuDaina’. In one book, this has been translated as ‘caused the arrogant mucukunda to dig his own grave’. In another book, it is translated as ‘dandy muchukunda’. A reading of the story of mucukunda reveals that he was a very pious person – therefore, the words ‘arrogant’ and ‘dandy’ would not apply to him.

‘dambha’ means ‘cheating’, ‘fraud’, ‘deceit’; it is kRshNa who, with the intention of bestowing grace on mucukunda, enacted a drama of deception by making mucukunda to wake up from sleep and burn to ashes the kAlayavana. Therefore, the word ‘dambha’ should be applied to kRshNa.

If ‘dambhuDaina’ is adopted, it contravenes the story of mucukunda; therefore, the syllable ‘na’ has been dropped; the word ‘dambhuDai’ has been applied to kRshNa.


Devanagari

ऎ,कॆ,चॆ.. - e,ke,ce..(short);
ए,के,चे.. - E,kE,cE..(long);
ऐ,कै,चै.. - ai,kai,cai..;
ऒ,कॊ,चॊ.. - o,ko,co..(short);
ओ,को,चो.. - O,kO,cO..(long);
औ,कौ,चौ.. -au,kau,cau..;

प. वल्ल का(द)नक सीता वल्लभ ब्रोवु ना(वल्ल)

अ. (नी)वल्ल नाटि भक्त चरित(मॆ)ल्ल व्राय(ने)लरा (वल्ल)

च. स्तम्भमुननु तरु मरुगुननु डिम्भुडै यशोद(यॊ)डिनि
दम्भुडै मुचुकुन्दुनि डासि मरुगुचु
सम्भविञ्चि युग युगमुन सरस त्यागराज विनुत
कुम्भक रेचक विदुलनु कोरि ब्रोचिनावु ना(वल्ल)


Tamil

க,ச,ட,த,ப - 2-ख छ ठ थ फ; 3-ग ड द ब; 4-घ झ ढ ध भ
(ச3 - ஜ)
ஸ1 श - शिव - சிவன்
ரு2 ऋ - कृप - கிருபை

ப. வல்ல கா(த3)னக ஸீதா வல்லப4 ப்3ரோவு நா(வல்ல)

அ. (நீ)வல்ல நாடி ப4க்த சரித(மெ)ல்ல வ்ராய(னே)லரா (வல்ல)

ச. ஸ்தம்ப4முனனு தரு மருகு3னனு டி3ம்பு4டை3 யஸோ1த3(யொ)டி3னி
த3ம்பு4டை3 முசுகுந்து3னி டா3ஸி மருகு3சு
ஸம்ப4விஞ்சி யுக3 யுக3முன ஸரஸ த்யாக3ராஜ வினுத
கும்ப4க ரேசக விது3லனு கோரி ப்3ரோசினாவு நா(வல்ல)

என்னால் முடியாதெனாதே, சீதைக் கேள்வா! காப்பாய்

உன்னால் அந்நாள் தொண்டர் சரிதமெல்லாம் எழுதப்பட்டதேனய்யா?
என்னால் முடியாதெனாதே, சீதைக் கேள்வா! காப்பாய்

கம்பத்தினுள்ளும், தரு மறைவிலும், குழவியாக யசோதை மடியிலும்,
ஏய்ப்போனாக முசுகுந்தனை, மறைந்து நெருங்கி,
ஒவ்வோர் யுகத்திலும் தோன்றி, தியாகராசன் போற்றும் இனியோனே!
கும்பகம், இரேசகத்தில் வல்லோரை வலியச் சென்று காத்தாய்;
என்னால் முடியாதெனாதே, சீதைக் கேள்வா! காப்பாய்

கம்பத்தினில் - நரசிங்கமாக, பிரகலாதனுக்காக
தரு மறைவினில் - ராமனாக, சுக்கிரீவனுக்காக
முசுகுந்தன் - இரகு குலத்தோன்றல்
கும்பகம், இரேசகம் - யோக முறை மூச்சடக்கல், விடல்


Telugu

ప. వల్ల కాదనక సీతా వల్లభ బ్రోవు నా(వల్ల)

అ. (నీ)వల్ల నాటి భక్త చరితమెల్ల వ్రాయనేలరా (వల్ల)

చ. స్తంభమునను తరు మరుగునను డింభుడై యశోదయొడిని
దంభుడై ముచుకుందుని డాసి మరుగుచు
సంభవించి యుగ యుగమున సరస త్యాగరాజ వినుత
కుంభక రేచక విదులను కోరి బ్రోచినావు నా(వల్ల)


Kannada

ಪ. ವಲ್ಲ ಕಾದನಕ ಸೀತಾ ವಲ್ಲಭ ಬ್ರೋವು ನಾ(ವಲ್ಲ)

ಅ. (ನೀ)ವಲ್ಲ ನಾಟಿ ಭಕ್ತ ಚರಿತಮೆಲ್ಲ ವ್ರಾಯನೇಲರಾ (ವಲ್ಲ)

ಚ. ಸ್ತಂಭಮುನನು ತರು ಮರುಗುನನು ಡಿಂಭುಡೈ ಯಶೋದಯೊಡಿನಿ
ದಂಭುಡೈ ಮುಚುಕುಂದುನಿ ಡಾಸಿ ಮರುಗುಚು
ಸಂಭವಿಂಚಿ ಯುಗ ಯುಗಮುನ ಸರಸ ತ್ಯಾಗರಾಜ ವಿನುತ
ಕುಂಭಕ ರೇಚಕ ವಿದುಲನು ಕೋರಿ ಬ್ರೋಚಿನಾವು ನಾ(ವಲ್ಲ)


Malayalam

പ. വല്ല കാദനക സീതാ വല്ലഭ ബ്രോവു നാ(വല്ല)

അ. (നീ)വല്ല നാടി ഭക്ത ചരിതമെല്ല വ്രായനേലരാ (വല്ല)

ച. സ്തമ്ഭമുനനു തരു മരുഗുനനു ഡിമ്ഭുഡൈ യശോദയൊഡിനി
ദമ്ഭുഡൈ മുചുകുന്ദുനി ഡാസി മരുഗുചു
സമ്ഭവിഞ്ചി യുഗ യുഗമുന സരസ ത്യാഗരാജ വിനുത
കുമ്ഭക രേചക വിദുലനു കോരി ബ്രോചിനാവു നാ(വല്ല)


Updated on 24 Sep 2009

2 comments:

S.Govindaswamy said...

Dear Sri Govindan

A.P – In TTD book ‘nI’ in the beginning is omitted. And only ‘alla nATi’ is given. Does not ‘alla’ rhyme with ‘valla’ in the beginning of pallavi whereas nIvalla does not? This gives the meaning al(l)anATi bhakta.
Does not nIvalla mean ‘by You’ (உன்னால்) whereas you have given the meaning as ‘because of You’(உன் பொருட்டு)?
Does not ‘vrAya’ mean எழுத and not எழுதப்பட as given by you. If ‘nI’ is omitted can we take the meaning as ‘why did the poets write about the devotees in earlier times ?

Regards
Govindaswamy

V Govindan said...

Dear Sri Govindaswamy,

Regarding (nI)valla, I find 'nI' is given in all books without exception. Therefore I cannot omit it. There are some more kRtis where such words are given in brackets. In most of the cases, the word given in brackets seem to be superfluous. However, the musical angle is to be taken note of as to why these words are given in brackets.

From prAsa-anuprAsa point of view, the anupallavi should start with 'va' However, we can derive meaning for 'alla nATi' also. 'nATi' and 'alla nATi' do not have much different meanings - both mean almost same.

Re : Tamil meaning of 'nIvalla'. In my humble opinion, 'nIvalla' would mean உன்னால் and not உன்பொருட்டு - it could be translated as உன்பொருட்டு only if it is 'nIkOsam'

Re : vrAya - The sentence is in passive voice. Therefore, it has to be translated as 'எழுதப்பட' and not as 'எழுத'

The word 'poet' has to be assumed as the subject in order to derive such a translation. As 'nI' is given in all the books, there is no way, it could be omitted and translated as suggested by you.

Regards,
V Govindan