Saturday, February 23, 2008

Thyagaraja Kriti - Etulaina Bhakti - Raga Saama

Transliteration–Telugu
Transliteration as per Modified Harvard-Kyoto (HK) Convention
(including Telugu letters – Short e, Short o) -

a A i I u U
R RR lR lRR
e E ai o O au M (H or :)

(e – short E – Long o – short O – Long)

k kh g gh n/G
c ch j jh n/J (jn – as in jnAna)
T Th D Dh N
t th d dh n
p ph b bh m
y r l L v
S sh s h

eTulaina bhakti-SAma

In the kRti ‘eTulaina bhakti vaccuTakE’ – rAga SAma, SrI tyAgarAja urges his mind to make all out efforts to become a true devotee of the Lord.

pallavi
eTulaina bhakti vaccuTakE yatnamu sEyavE


anupallavi
1maTu-mAya bhavamunu manad(a)ni(y)2encaka
3vaTa patra Sayanuni pAda yugamul(a)ndu (eTu)


caraNam 1
4vidyA garvamul(E)la nIv-
5(a)vidyA vaSamu kAn(E)la
6khadyOt(A)nvaya tilakuni puram(E)lu
7buddhi(y)ASuga tOcad(E)la O manasA (eTu)


caraNam 2
rAma nAmamu sEya siggA kArA-
d(E)mi palkavu puNTi buggA
8bhAmala kara dATaka(y)uNTE 9jagga
pAmara mEnu nammaka 10nITi bugga (eTu)


caraNam 3
11bhOga bhAgyamul(a)ndu nija
12bhAgavatulukau nI pondu
tyAgarAja varaduni nI(y)andu
bAguga dhyAnincu bhava rOga mandu (eTu)


Gist

O My Mind!

  • Try to develop devotion by any means.

  • Not considering this illusory worldly existence as belonging to us, try to develop devotion by any means towards the Holy feet of the Lord who rests on the leaf of banyan tree.


    • Why have pride of erudition?

    • Why should you come in the grip of ignorance?

    • Why the thought of going to ayOdhyA - the town of Lord SrI rAma - the most distinguished one of the solar race - wouldn’t quickly occur to you?


    • Do you feel shy (or ashamed) to chant the name of SrI rAma? Or is it (chanting the name of SrI rAma) prohibited?

    • Can’t you speak? Are you ulcer mouthed?

    • It would be very nice if you do not trespass into quarters of women.

    • O Fool! Do not trust the body; it is (like) a water bubble.


    • Even amidst enjoyments and fortunes may your association be with true devotees;

    • meditate well in yourself on Lord SrI rAma - the benefactor of this tyAgarAja;

    • that is the panacea for the disease called worldly existence.



Word-by-word Meaning

pallavi
eTulaina bhakti vaccuTakE yatnamu sEyavE

Try (yatnamu sEyavE) (literally make efforts) to develop (vaccuTakE) (literally come) devotion (bhakti) by any means (eTulaina).


anupallavi
maTu-mAya bhavamunu manadi-ani-encaka
vaTa patra Sayanuni pAda yugamulandu (eTu)

Not considering (encaka) this illusory (maTumAya) worldly existence (bhavamunu) as (ani) belonging to us (manadi) (manadaniyencaka),
try to develop devotion by any means towards (andu) the Holy feet (pAda yugamulu) (pAdayugamulandu) of the Lord who rests (Sayanuni) on the leaf (patra) of banyan tree (vaTa).


caraNam 1
vidyA garvamulu-Ela nIvu-
avidyA vaSamu kAnu-Ela
khadyOta-anvaya tilakuni puramu-Elu
buddhi-ASuga tOcadu-Ela O manasA (eTu)

O My Mind (manasA)! Why (Ela) have pride (garvamulu) (garvamulEla) of erudition (vidyA)? Why (Ela) should you (nIvu) come (kAnu) (kAnEla) in the grip (vaSamu) of ignorance (avidyA) (nIvavidyA)?
why (Ela) the thought (buddhi) of going (Elu) to ayOdhyA - the town (puramu) (puramElu) of Lord SrI rAma - the most distinguished one (tilakuni) (literally the mark on the forehead) of the solar (khadyOta) race (anvaya) (khadyOtAnvaya) - wouldn’t quickly (ASuga) (literally speedily) (buddhiyASuga) occur (tOcadu) (tOcadEla) to you?
try to develop devotion by any means towards the Holy feet of the Lord.


caraNam 2
rAma nAmamu sEya siggA kArAdu-
Emi palkavu puNTi buggA
bhAmala kara dATaka-uNTE jagga
pAmara mEnu nammaka nITi bugga (eTu)

Do you feel shy (or ashamed) (siggA) to chant (sEya) the name (nAmamu) of SrI rAma? Or is it (Emi) (chanting the name of SrI rAma) prohibited (kArAdu) (literally not done) (kArAdEmi)? Can’t you speak (palkavu)? Are you ulcer (puNTi) (literally wound or boil) mouthed (buggA)? (OR O ulcer-mouthed!)
It would be very nice (jagga) (literally pretty) if you do not trespass (dATaka uNTE) (dATakayuNTE) into quarters (kara) (literally shore) of women (bhAmala)! O Fool (pAmara)! do not trust (nammaka) the body (mEnu); it is (like) a water (nITi) bubble (bugga);
try to develop devotion by any means towards the Holy feet of the Lord.


caraNam 3
bhOga bhAgyamulu-andu nija
bhAgavatulukau nI pondu
tyAgarAja varaduni nIyandu
bAguga dhyAnincu bhava rOga mandu (eTu)

Even amidst (andu) enjoyments (bhOga) and fortunes (bhAgyamulu) (bhAgyamulandu) may your (nI) association (pondu) be with true (nija) devotees (bhAgavatulaku) (bhAgavatulakau);
meditate (dhyAnincu) well (bhAguga) in (andu) yourself (nI) (nIyandu) on Lord SrI rAma - the benefactor (varaduni) of this tyAgarAja (because) that is the panacea (mandu) for the disease (rOga) called worldly existence (bhava);
try to develop devotion by any means towards the Holy feet of the Lord.


Notes –
Variations
7 - buddhiyASuga – buddhyASuna - buddhyASuga.

8 – bhAmala kara dATakayuNTE – bhAmala kaDa dATakumaNTE - bhAmalu kara dATakayuNDina: Considering the ensuing word ‘jagga’ (see note below), and the next line ‘mEnu nammaka nITi bugga’ (body is like a bubble), the version adopted herein seems to be appropriate.

10- nITi bugga – nIr bugga : Both mean same thing.

11 – bhOga bhAgyamulandu – bhOga bhAgyumulayandu.

12 – bhAgavatulakau nI pondu – bhAgavatulu kAni pondu rOsi : The latter version does not convey any suitable meaning.

References
3 - vaTapatra Sayana– At the time of dissolution (pralaya) of the Universe, the Lord is stated to be resting on a leaf of banyan tree floating on the sheet of water. SrImad bhAgavatam, Book 12, Chapter 8, verse 4 is relevant –

“ ...when annihilation occurred during Brahmā's night, the sage mArkaNDEya wandered throughout the fearful waters of destruction and saw within those waters an extraordinary personality lying on a banyan leaf...”

Praise of dEvahUti - SrImad bhAgavataM, Book 3, Chapter 33, Verse 4

"As the Supreme Personality of Godhead, You have taken birth from my abdomen. O my Lord, how is that possible for the supreme one, who has in His belly all the cosmic manifestation? The answer is that it is possible, for at the end of the millennium You lie down on a leaf of a banyan tree, and just like a small baby, You lick the toe of Your lotus foot."

5- avidya – ignorance – this word brings out wider philosophical meaning because of the following word ‘vaSamu kAnEla’ (why come into the grip); it is not a simple opposite of vidya – earlier used. 'avidya' is defined in the patanjali yOga sUtra –

anityASuci duHkhAnAtmasu nitya
Suci sukhAtmakhyAtiravidya II.5

“To regard the non-eternal as eternal, the impure as pure, the painful as pleasant and non-Atman as Atman – this is ignorance.”

From this stand-point even the word ‘vidya’ earlier stated by SrI tyAgarAja would fall into the category of avidya. The following verse in the nArada bhakti sUtra is relevant –

abhimAnadambhAdikaM tyAjyaM (64)

“Pride, vanity, and other vices should be given up.”

For detailed discussion on vidyA-avidyA, please refer to ‘brahma sUtras’ by Swami Vireshwarananda – Pages 12 – 16. The complete version of brahma sUtras by Swami Sivananda(download).

Comments -
1 - maTumAya – the kind of make-believe created by magician.

2 – encaka – this word may also be taken as an exhortation to the mind ‘do not consider’. In that case, first line will be translated as ‘do not consider the illusory Worldly Existence as belonging to us’; second line of anupallavi only will be connected to the pallavi.

4 - vidya – erudition - SrI tyAgaraja refers to knowledge of music and or other worldly knowledge – this is so because of the following word ‘garva’ – pride.

6 - khadyOtAnvaya tilakuni pura – sAkEta - ayOdhya – However, in the present context, it refers to vaikuNTha.

9 – jagga – ‘jaggu’ means ‘brightness’ ‘prettiness’, ‘grace’; in the present context, it seems to be an appreciation - ‘pretty’, ‘very nice’.

Devanagari

ऎ,कॆ,चॆ.. - e,ke,ce..(short);
ए,के,चे.. - E,kE,cE..(long);
ऐ,कै,चै.. - ai,kai,cai..;
ऒ,कॊ,चॊ.. - o,ko,co..(short);
ओ,को,चो.. - O,kO,cO..(long);
औ,कौ,चौ.. -au,kau,cau..;

प. ऎटुलैन भक्ति वच्चुटके यत्नमु सेयवे

अ. मटु-माय भवमुनु मन(द)नि(यॆ)ञ्चक
वट पत्र शयनुनि पाद युगमु(ल)न्दु (ऎटु)

च1. विद्या गर्वमु(ले)ल
नी(व)विद्या वशमु का(ने)ल
खद्यो(ता)न्वय तिलकुनि पुर(मे)लु
बुद्धि(या)शुग तोच(दे)ल ओ मनसा (ऎटु)

च2. राम नाममु सेय सिग्गा कारा-
(दे)मि पल्कवु पुण्टि बुग्गा
भामल कर दाटक(यु)ण्टे जग्ग
पामर मेनु नम्मक नीटि बुग्ग (ऎटु)

च3. भोग भाग्यमु(ल)न्दु निज
भागवतुलकौ नी पॊन्दु
त्यागराज वरदुनि नी(य)न्दु
बागुग ध्यानिञ्चु भव रोग मन्दु (ऎटु)


Tamil

க,ச,ட,த,ப - 2-ख छ ठ थ फ; 3-ग ड द ब; 4-घ झ ढ ध भ
(ச3 - ஜ)
ஸ1 श - शिव - சிவன்
ரு2 ऋ - कृप - கிருபை

ப. எடுலைன ப4க்தி வச்சுடகே யத்னமு ஸேயவே

அ. மடு-மாய ப4வமுனு மன(த3)னி(யெ)ஞ்சக
வட பத்ர ஸ1யனுனி பாத3 யுக3மு(ல)ந்து3 (எடு)

ச1. வித்3யா க3ர்வமு(லே)ல
நீ(வ)வித்3யா வஸ1மு கா(னே)ல
க2த்3யோ(தா)ன்வய திலகுனி புர(மே)லு
பு3த்3தி4(யா)ஸு1க3 தோச(தே3)ல ஓ மனஸா (எடு)

ச2. ராம நாமமு ஸேய ஸிக்3கா3 காரா-
(தே3)மி பல்கவு புண்டி பு3க்3கா3
பா4மல கர தா3டக(யு)ண்டே ஜக்3க3
பாமர மேனு நம்மக நீடி பு3க்3க3 (எடு)

ச3. போ4க3 பா4க்3யமு(ல)ந்து3 நிஜ
பா4க3வதுலகௌ நீ பொந்து3
த்யாக3ராஜ வரது3னி நீ(ய)ந்து3
பா3கு3க3 த்4யானிஞ்சு ப4வ ரோக3 மந்து3 (எடு)

எப்படியாகிலும் பக்தி வருதற்கே முயற்சிப்பாய்

கண்கட்டு மாய உலக வாழ்வினை நமதென எண்ணாது,
ஆலிலையிற் றுயில்வோனின் திருவடி இணையினில்
எப்படியாகிலும் பக்தி வருதற்கே முயற்சிப்பாய்

1. கல்விச் செருக்கேனோ? நீ
அவித்தையின் வயப்படுவதேனோ?
பரிதி குலத் திலகத்தின் நகர் செல்லும்
எண்ணம் சடுதியில் தோன்றாததேனோ? ஓ மனமே!
எப்படியாகிலும் பக்தி வருதற்கே முயற்சிப்பாய்

2. இராம நாம (செபம்) செய்ய நாணமோ? செய்யக்
கூடாதோ? பேசமாட்டாயோ? புண் வாயோ?
பெண்டிர் கரை தாண்டாதிருந்தால், மிக்க நன்று;
அறிவிலியே! உடலை நம்பாதே; (அது) நீர்க் குமிழி
எப்படியாகிலும் பக்தி வருதற்கே முயற்சிப்பாய்

3. இன்பம், பேறு - இவற்றிற்கிடையும், உண்மையான
தொண்டர்களுடன் இருக்கட்டும் உனது தொடர்பு;
தியாகராசனுக் கருள்வோனை உன்னுள்
நன்கு தியானிப்பாய்; உலக வாழ்வெனும் நோய்க்கு (அதுவே) மருந்து;
எப்படியாகிலும் பக்தி வருதற்கே முயற்சிப்பாய்

ஆலிலையிற் றுயில்வோன் - பிரளய காலத்தில், இறைவன், நீரில், ஆலிலையில், குழந்தையாக, கால் விரலை சப்பிக்கொண்டு, மிதப்பதாக.
அவித்தை - மெய்யறிவின்மை
பரிதி குலத்திலகம் - இராமன்
பரிதி குலத்திலகத்தின் நகர் - அயோத்தி - இங்கு வைகுண்டத்தைக் குறிக்கும்
பெண்டிர் கரை தாண்டாதிருந்தால் - பெண்டிரின் இணக்கத்தினைத் தவிர்த்தல்


Telugu

ప. ఎటులైన భక్తి వచ్చుటకే యత్నము సేయవే

అ. మటు-మాయ భవమును మనదనియెంచక
వట పత్ర శయనుని పాద యుగములందు (ఎటు)

చ1. విద్యా గర్వములేల
నీవవిద్యా వశము కానేల
ఖద్యోతాన్వయ తిలకుని పురమేలు
బుద్ధియాశుగ తోచదేల ఓ మనసా (ఎటు)

చ2. రామ నామము సేయ సిగ్గా కారా-
దేమి పల్కవు పుంటి బుగ్గా
భామల కర దాటకయుంటే జగ్గ
పామర మేను నమ్మక నీటి బుగ్గ (ఎటు)

చ3. భోగ భాగ్యములందు నిజ
భాగవతులకౌ నీ పొందు
త్యాగరాజ వరదుని నీయందు
బాగుగ ధ్యానించు భవ రోగ మందు (ఎటు)


Kannada

ಪ. ಎಟುಲೈನ ಭಕ್ತಿ ವಚ್ಚುಟಕೇ ಯತ್ನಮು ಸೇಯವೇ

ಅ. ಮಟು-ಮಾಯ ಭವಮುನು ಮನದನಿಯೆಂಚಕ
ವಟ ಪತ್ರ ಶಯನುನಿ ಪಾದ ಯುಗಮುಲಂದು (ಎಟು)

ಚ1. ವಿದ್ಯಾ ಗರ್ವಮುಲೇಲ
ನೀವವಿದ್ಯಾ ವಶಮು ಕಾನೇಲ
ಖದ್ಯೋತಾನ್ವಯ ತಿಲಕುನಿ ಪುರಮೇಲು
ಬುದ್ಧಿಯಾಶುಗ ತೋಚದೇಲ ಓ ಮನಸಾ (ಎಟು)

ಚ2. ರಾಮ ನಾಮಮು ಸೇಯ ಸಿಗ್ಗಾ ಕಾರಾ-
ದೇಮಿ ಪಲ್ಕವು ಪುಂಟಿ ಬುಗ್ಗಾ
ಭಾಮಲ ಕರ ದಾಟಕಯುಂಟೇ ಜಗ್ಗ
ಪಾಮರ ಮೇನು ನಮ್ಮಕ ನೀಟಿ ಬುಗ್ಗ (ಎಟು)

ಚ3. ಭೋಗ ಭಾಗ್ಯಮುಲಂದು ನಿಜ
ಭಾಗವತುಲಕೌ ನೀ ಪೊಂದು
ತ್ಯಾಗರಾಜ ವರದುನಿ ನೀಯಂದು
ಬಾಗುಗ ಧ್ಯಾನಿಂಚು ಭವ ರೋಗ ಮಂದು (ಎಟು)


Malayalam

പ. എടുലൈന ഭക്തി വച്ചുടകേ യത്നമു സേയവേ

അ. മടു-മായ ഭവമുനു മനദനിയെഞ്ചക
വട പത്ര ശയനുനി പാദ യുഗമുലന്ദു (എടു)

ച1. വിദ്യാ ഗര്വമുലേല
നീവവിദ്യാ വശമു കാനേല
ഖദ്യോതാന്വയ തിലകുനി പുരമേലു
ബുദ്ധിയാശുഗ തോചദേല ഓ മനസാ (എടു)

ച2. രാമ നാമമു സേയ സിഗ്ഗാ കാരാ-
ദേമി പല്കവു പുണ്ടി ബുഗ്ഗാ
ഭാമല കര ദാടകയുണ്ടേ ജഗ്ഗ
പാമര മേനു നമ്മക നീടി ബുഗ്ഗ (എടു)

ച3. ഭോഗ ഭാഗ്യമുലന്ദു നിജ
ഭാഗവതുലകൌ നീ പൊന്ദു
ത്യാഗരാജ വരദുനി നീയന്ദു
ബാഗുഗ ധ്യാനിഞ്ചു ഭവ രോഗ മന്ദു (എടു)


Updated on 08 Aug 2009

2 comments:

S.Govindaswamy said...

Dear Sri Govindan

C1 -' tilakuni puram(E)lu' - We have exchanged ideas on 'Elu'. Is this word by any chance 'Egu' equivalent to the Tamil word ஏகு /ஏகினான்.
C2 – I feel that instead of 'புண் வாயோ?' ’வாய்ப்புண்ணோ?’ may be better. Does not bugga mean cheek?

jagga – ‘jaggu’ means ‘brightness’ ‘prettiness’, ‘grace’; in the present context, it seems to be an appreciation - ‘pretty’, ‘very nice’.- Earlier I gave my opinion as
“In your interpretation one who does not go after women is a fool. This will contradict the next statement 'mEnu nammaka, nITi bugga ' In my earlier mail I suggested பெண்கள் கிழித்த கோட்டைத் தாண்டாத? The meaning can be also taken as one who does not cross over from the side of women (i.e) give up lust.”.
On second reading I feel that he above meaning can be derived if instead of ' dATakayuNTE' we take ' dATakayuNDE'.
I feel that tyAgarAja is calling the man not crossing over (escaping) from the lust of women, sarcastically jugga .
Regards
Govindaswamy

V Govindan said...

Dear Sri Govindaswamy,
Re : 'Elu'. Yes, it is equivalent to tamil word ஏகு.

Re ; puNTi buggA - I have translated exactly the way it is given in telugu taking 'puNTi' as adjective of 'bugga'. Earlier I had translated as 'வாய்ப்புண்ணோ' and then I changed.

'bugga' means cheek and 'inside the cheek'. Please refer to - bugga

Re - jagga' and 'bhAmala kara', I will leave it for the time being because, I do not have a suitable response.

Regards,
V Govindan