Friday, September 28, 2007

Thyagaraja Kriti - Ennaallu Tirigedi - Raga Maalava Sri

Transliteration–Telugu _______________________________________________________
Transliteration as per Modified Harvard-Kyoto (HK) Convention
(including Telugu letters – Short e, Short o) -

a A i I u U
R RR lR lRR
e E ai o O au M (H or :)

(e – short E – Long o – short O – Long)

k kh g gh n/G
c ch j jh n/J (jn – as in jnAna)
T Th D Dh N
t th d dh n
p ph b bh m
y r l L v
S sh s h

ennALLu tirigEdi-mALavaSrI

In the kRti ‘ennALLu tirigEdi’ – rAga mALavaSrI, SrI tyAgarAja regrets his own failings.

P ennALLu tirigEdi(y)ennALLu

A 1enna rAni dEhamul(e)tti(y)I saMsAra gahanam(a)ndu
pannuga cOrula rIti parulanu vEgincucunu (ennALLu)

C1 rEpaTi kUTiki lEd(a)ni rEyi pagalu vesanam(o)ndi
SrI pati pUjala maraci cEsin(a)TTi vAri vale nEn(ennALLu)

C2 uppu karpUramu varakun2(u)nchavRtticE(n)Arjinci
meppulaku poTTa nimpi mEmE peddalam(a)nucu (ennALLu)

C3 bhramanukoni irugu porugu bhakshimpa rammani pilva
amarucukO pUja japamun(A)sAyamu cEtun(a)nucu (ennALLu)

C4 nA(y)and(u)NDE tappulu nADE 3telusukoNTi kAni
bAya viDuvaka mahAnubhAva tyAgarAja vinuta (ennALLu)

Gist
O The Great One! O Lord praised by this tyAgarAja!

How long shall I wander? How long?

Having taken countless bodies, how long shall I wander nicely in this forest of Worldly Existence, by harassing others like thieves?

1. Becoming worried day and night that there is nothing for tomorrow’s food and having forgotten the worship of the Lord vishNu, how long shall I wander like those who perform (worship daily)?

2. Having earned even salt and camphor by unchavRtti and filling the stomach, how long shall I wander seeking fame boasting oneself to be great person?

3. In order that neighbours should become stunned and invite me to be their guest, how long shall I wander telling them that I properly (or patiently) perform worship and chanting till evening?

4. Though I have understood, long back, the faults existing in me, how long shall I wander without abandoning them?

Word-by-word Meaning

P How long (ennALLu) shall I wander (tirigEdi)? How long (ennALLu) (tirigEdiyennALLu)?

A Having taken (etti) countless (enna rAni) bodies (dEhamulu), how long shall I wander nicely (pannuga),
in (andu) this (I) (dEhamulettiyI) forest (gahanamu) (gahanamandu) of Worldly Existence (saMsara),
by harassing (vEgincucunu) others (parulanu) like (rIti) thieves (cOrula)? How long?

C1 Becoming (ondi) worried (vesanamu) (vesanamondi) day (pagalu) and night (rEyi) that (ani) there is nothing (lEdu) (lEdani) for tomorrow’s (rEpaTi) food (kUTiki) and
having forgotten (maraci) the worship (pUjala) of the Lord vishNu – the Consort (pati) of lakshmI (SrI),
how long shall I (nEnu) wander like those (aTTi vAri vale) who perform (cEsina) (cEsinaTTi) (worship daily)? How long?

C2 Having earned (Arjinci) even (varakunu) (literally up to) salt (uppu) and camphor (karpUramu) by unchavRtti (unchavRtticE) (literally living by gleaning) (varakununchavRtticEnArjinci) and filling (nimpi) the stomach (poTTa),
how long shall I (nEnu) wander seeking fame (meppulaku) boasting oneself (mEmE) (literally we are) to be (anucu) a great person (peddalamu) (peddalamanucu)? How long?

C3 In order that neighbours (irugu porugu) should become stunned (bhramanukoni) and invite (pilva) me to be (rammu ani) (literally to come) (rammani) their guest (bhakshimpa) (literally for partaking food),
how long shall I wander telling them that (anucu) I properly (or patiently) (amarucukO) perform (cEtunu) (literally usually perform) (cEtunanucu) worship (pUja) and chanting (japa) (japamunu) till evening (AsAyamu) (japamunAsAyamu)? How long?

C4 Though (kAni) I have understood (telusukoNTi), long back (nADE), the faults (tappulu) existing (uNDE) in (andu) me (nA) (nAyanduNDE),
O The Great One (mahAnubhAva)! O Lord praised (vinuta) by this tyAgarAja! how long shall I wander without abandoning (bAya viDuvaka) (literally keep separate) them? How long?

Notes –
Variations –
General – the order of caraNas 1 and 2 are interchanged in some books.

3 – telusukoNTi – telusukoNTivi. ‘telusukoNTivi’ means ‘You have known’; ‘telusukoNTi’ means ‘I have understood’. Therefore, there is a contradiction.

However, the subsequent words, ‘bAya viDuvaka’ mean ‘do not abandon’ or ‘without abandoning’. But, ‘bAya viDuvaka’ is to be joined to pallavi ‘ennALLu tirigEdi’. Therefore, ‘bAya viDuvaka’ with the meaning ‘without abandoning’ seems to be correct. Accordingly, ‘telusukoNTi’ seems to be the correct word.

References –
1 – enna rAni dEhamuletti – Accoring to Sant Kabir, before being born as a human being, one passes through 84 lakh yOnis. Kabir Sahib says “Following the mind you went into the forest, and obeying the mind you again went back into the town. And working according to the advice of the mind, you are going back into the cycle of eighty-four lakhs births and deaths.” – Source –
84 lakh yOnis - Kabir : songs of Kabir

Comments -
2 – unchavRtti – livelihood by gleaning – gathering ears of corn left by reapers. As per manu smRti (Chapter 4), the rightful living for a brAhmaNa is to glean food (Rta) or living on what is given unasked (aMRta).

In the modern context, those who follow this path of living, daily go round the streets singing songs on Lord and accept food articles (not food) offered by the households. The grain so gathered is cooked and taken by the family as meals for that day. They are not expected to hoard even for the next meal.

The house-holders consider it to be a merit to offer food articles to those who perform unchavRtti. Normally only rice and pulses are offered; however, SrI tyAgarAja says here that even salt (uppu) and camphor (karpUramu) have been collected so.
complete translation of manu smRti


Devanagari

ऎ,कॆ,चॆ.. - e,ke,ce..(short);
ए,के,चे.. - E,kE,cE..(long);
ऐ,कै,चै.. - ai,kai,cai..;
ऒ,कॊ,चॊ.. - o,ko,co..(short);
ओ,को,चो.. - O,kO,cO..(long);
औ,कौ,चौ.. -au,kau,cau..;

प. ऎन्नाळ्ळु तिरिगेदि(यॆ)न्नाळ्ळु

अ. ऎन्न रानि देहमु(लॆ)त्ति(यी) संसार गहन(म)न्दु
पन्नुग चोरुल रीति परुलनु वेगिञ्चुचुनु (ऎ)

च1. रेपटि कूटिकि ले(द)नि रेयि पगलु वॆसन(मॊ)न्दि
श्री पति पूजल मरचि चेसि(न)ट्टि वारि वलॆ ने(नॆ)

च2. उप्पु कर्पूरमु वरकु(नु)ञ्छवृत्तिचे(ना)र्जिञ्चि
मॆप्पुलकु पॊट्ट निम्पि मेमे पॆद्दल(म)नुचु (ऎ)

च3. भ्रमनुकॊनि इरुगु-पॊरुगु भक्षिम्प रम्मनि पिल्व
अमरुचुको पूज जपमु(ना)सायमु चेतु(न)नुचु (ऎ)

च4. ना(य)(न्दु)ण्डे तप्पुलु नाडे तॆलुसुकॊण्टि कानि
बाय विडुवक माहानुभाव त्यागराज विनुत (ऎ)

Tamil

க,ச,ட,த,ப - 2-ख छ ठ थ फ; 3-ग ड द ब; 4-घ झ ढ ध भ
(ச3 - ஜ)
ஸ1 श - शिव - சிவன்
ரு2 ऋ - कृप - கிருபை

ப. என்னாள்ளு திரிகே3தி3(யெ)ன்னாள்ளு

அ. என்ன ரானி தே3ஹமு(லெ)த்தி(யீ) ஸம்ஸார க3ஹன(ம)ந்து3
பன்னுக3 சோருல ரீதி பருலனு வேகி3ஞ்சுசுனு (எ)

ச1. ரேபடி கூடிகி லே(த3)னி ரேயி பக3லு வெஸன(மொ)ந்தி3
ஸ்ரீ பதி பூஜல மரசி சேஸி(ன)ட்டி வாரி வலெ நே(னெ)

ச2. உப்பு கர்பூரமு வரகு(னு)ஞ்ச2வ்ரு2த்திசே(னா)ர்ஜிஞ்சி
மெப்புலகு பொட்ட நிம்பி மேமே பெத்3த3ல(ம)னுசு (எ)

ச3. ப்4ரமனுகொனி இருகு3-பொருகு3 ப4க்ஷிம்ப ரம்மனி பில்வ
அமருசுகோ பூஜ ஜபமு(னா)ஸாயமு சேது(ன)னுசு (எ)

ச4. நா(ய)(ந்து3)ண்டே3 தப்புலு நாடே3 தெலுஸுகொண்டி கானி
பா3ய விடு3வக மாஹானுபா4வ த்யாக3ராஜ வினுத (எ)

எத்தனை நாள், திரிவதெத்தனை நாள்?

எண்ணிறந்த உடல்களெடுத்து, இந்த சமுசாரக் காட்டினில்,
நேர்த்தியாக, திருடர்கள் போன்று, பிறரை வருத்தி
எத்தனை நாள் திரிவது?

1. நாளைய கூழுக்கில்லையென, இரவு பகல் துயருற்று,
மாமணாளன் வழிபாட்டினை மறந்து, செய்தவர்கள் போன்று
நான் எத்தனை நாள் திரிவது?

2. உப்பு, கற்பூரம் வரைக்கும் உஞ்சவிருத்தியினால் ஈட்டி,
வயிற்றை நிரப்பி, புகழுக்காக, யாமே பெரியோரென
எத்தனை நாள் திரிவது?

3. திகைத்து, அக்கம்பக்கத்தார் உணவருந்த அழைப்பதற்காக,
பொறுமையாக, பூசை, செபம் மாலை வரை செய்குவோமென
எத்தனை நாள் திரிவது?

4. என்னிடமுள்ள தவறுகளை அன்றே யறிந்துகொண்டேன்; ஆனால்,
பெருந்தகையே! தியாகராசனால் போற்றப் பெற்றோனே!
(அவற்றைக்) கைவிடாது எத்தனை நாள் திரிவது?

நேர்த்தியாக - இது கேலிச் சொல்
செய்தவர்கள் போன்று - வழிபாட்டினைக் குறிக்கும்
உஞ்சவிருத்தி - இறைவன் நாமங்களைப் பாடிக்கொண்டு
உணவுப் பொருள் சேகரித்தல்

Telugu

ప. ఎన్నాళ్ళు తిరిగేదియెన్నాళ్ళు

అ. ఎన్న రాని దేహములెత్తియీ సంసార గహనమందు
పన్నుగ చోరుల రీతి పరులను వేగించుచును (ఎ)

చ1. రేపటి కూటికి లేదని రేయి పగలు వెసనమొంది
శ్రీ పతి పూజల మరచి చేసినట్టి వారి వలె నే(నె)

చ2. ఉప్పు కర్పూరము వరకునుంఛవృత్తిచేనార్జించి
మెప్పులకు పొట్ట నింపి మేమే పెద్దలమనుచు (ఎ)

చ3. భ్రమనుకొని ఇరుగు-పొరుగు భక్షింప రమ్మని పిల్వ
అమరుచుకో పూజ జపమునాసాయము చేతుననుచు (ఎ)

చ4. నాయందుండే తప్పులు నాడే తెలుసుకొంటి కాని
బాయ విడువక మాహానుభావ త్యాగరాజ వినుత (ఎ)

Kannada

ಪ. ಎನ್ನಾಳ್ಳು ತಿರಿಗೇದಿಯೆನ್ನಾಳ್ಳು

ಅ. ಎನ್ನ ರಾನಿ ದೇಹಮುಲೆತ್ತಿಯೀ ಸಂಸಾರ ಗಹನಮಂದು
ಪನ್ನುಗ ಚೋರುಲ ರೀತಿ ಪರುಲನು ವೇಗಿಂಚುಚುನು (ಎ)

ಚ1. ರೇಪಟಿ ಕೂಟಿಕಿ ಲೇದನಿ ರೇಯಿ ಪಗಲು ವೆಸನಮೊಂದಿ
ಶ್ರೀ ಪತಿ ಪೂಜಲ ಮರಚಿ ಚೇಸಿನಟ್ಟಿ ವಾರಿ ವಲೆ ನೇ(ನೆ)

ಚ2. ಉಪ್ಪು ಕರ್ಪೂರಮು ವರಕುನುಂಛವೃತ್ತಿಚೇನಾರ್ಜಿಂಚಿ
ಮೆಪ್ಪುಲಕು ಪೊಟ್ಟ ನಿಂಪಿ ಮೇಮೇ ಪೆದ್ದಲಮನುಚು (ಎ)

ಚ3. ಭ್ರಮನುಕೊನಿ ಇರುಗು-ಪೊರುಗು ಭಕ್ಷಿಂಪ ರಮ್ಮನಿ ಪಿಲ್ವ
ಅಮರುಚುಕೋ ಪೂಜ ಜಪಮುನಾಸಾಯಮು ಚೇತುನನುಚು (ಎ)

ಚ4. ನಾಯಂದುಂಡೇ ತಪ್ಪುಲು ನಾಡೇ ತೆಲುಸುಕೊಂಟಿ ಕಾನಿ
ಬಾಯ ವಿಡುವಕ ಮಾಹಾನುಭಾವ ತ್ಯಾಗರಾಜ ವಿನುತ (ಎ)

Malayalam

പ. എന്നാള്ളു തിരിഗേദിയെന്നാള്ളു

അ. എന്ന രാനി ദേഹമുലെത്തിയീ സംസാര ഗഹനമന്ദു
പന്നുഗ ചോരുല രീതി പരുലനു വേഗിഞ്ചുചുനു (എ)

ച1. രേപടി കൂടികി ലേദനി രേയി പഗലു വെസനമൊന്ദി
ശ്രീ പതി പൂജല മരചി ചേസിനട്ടി വാരി വലെ നേ(നെ)

ച2. ഉപ്പു കര്പൂരമു വരകുനുഞ്ഛവൃത്തിചേനാര്ജിഞ്ചി
മെപ്പുലകു പൊട്ട നിമ്പി മേമേ പെദ്ദലമനുചു (എ)

ച3. ഭ്രമനുകൊനി ഇരുഗു-പൊരുഗു ഭക്ഷിമ്പ രമ്മനി പില്വ
അമരുചുകോ പൂജ ജപമുനാസായമു ചേതുനനുചു (എ)

ച4. നായന്ദുണ്ഡേ തപ്പുലു നാഡേ തെലുസുകൊണ്ടി കാനി
ബായ വിഡുവക മാഹാനുഭാവ ത്യാഗരാജ വിനുത (എ)

Updated on 26 Feb 2009

2 comments:

Govindaswamy said...

Dear Sri Govindan

I find caraNam 3 a little confusing. Does it mean the following.
1 tyAgarAjA was going without food for many days (Ref :carNam 2).
2 In oder to impress (stun) the neighbours and induce them to invite him for partaking food, he told them that he would be performing pUja and chantig till evening.
He was declining their invitation and reaining hungry out of modesty/delicacy/shame. (Poet Bharathiar also was suffering like this. Kambar workd as a construction labourer in Ceylon).
Does it not amount to pretension/falsehood. Does it also mean that his pUjA and chanting were not sincere?
3 Does he not confirm in caraNam 2 that he was starving for many days, forgetting to do pujA and pretending to be doing it?
4 In anupallavi he 'confesses' about harassing others.

I thought that bhramamu (பிரமை) in common usage carries the meaning such as getting carried away by false impression/illusion (கானல் நீர்). bhraminci instead of bhramamanukoni carries the meaning you have given better.

Does this kriti throw light on his miseries?
Regards
Govindaswamy

V Govindan said...

Dear Sri Govindaswami,

This kRti comes in the category of 'Atma garhaNa' - self denigration'. Many a times, great people use this method to teach the ignorant public as if they are suffering many faults. But this kRti seems to convey that he had all these failings.

This is the reason why I feel that tyAagrAja kRtis are an auto-biography. Mahatma Gandhi was another person who wrote his auto-biography.

It requires great courage to expose one's failings to the public, though in case of tyAgarAja, these kRtis were his private communication to the Lord and should not have been includded in the kRtis to be sung by others.

Others singing similar kRtis where he has complained about his sufferings in the hands of his cousins has caused him more misery.

There has to be another category of kRtis, which should be classifed as 'not to be sung' by musiciaions. But who is to bell the cat? Musicians go by rAga - ignoring the meaning - and the public appeal of their vidvat by performing exposition in those rAgas, forgetting that these kRtis are not suited for public rendition.

Regards,
V Govindan