Friday, August 31, 2007

Thyagaraja Kriti - Krpaalavaala - Raga Naada Varaangini

Transliteration–Telugu _______________________________________________________
Transliteration as per Modified Harvard-Kyoto (HK) Convention
(including Telugu letters – Short e, Short o) -

a A i I u U
e E ai o O au M (H or :)

(e – short E – Long o – short O – Long)

k kh g gh n/G
c ch j jh n/J (jn – as in jnAna)
T Th D Dh N
t th d dh n
p ph b bh m
y r l L v
S sh s h


In the kRti ‘kRpAlavAla’ – rAga nAdavarAngiNi, SrI tyAgarAja pities those who are deceived by the siddhis.

P 1kRp(A)lavAla kalA dhara SEkhara
kRt(A)bhivandana SrI rAma

A nRp(O)ttama SaraN(A)gata jan(A)gha
nivAraN(A)bja hit(A)nvaya SaSAnka (kRpA)

C 2apavarga phala 3kAmamulanu jUci 4aDDamai
5aNim(A)di siddhula mOsa buccedar(a)yya
su-pavitra rUpa sadA karuNa jUDu
sura pAlaka tyAgarAja nuta (kRpA)

O Ocean of compassion! O Lord SrI rAma saluted by Lord Siva! O Excellent among kings! O Lord who relieves the sins of people who have sought Your refuge! O Moon born in the solar dynasty! O Lord of Most Holy Form! O Protector of celestials! O Lord praised by this tyAgarAja!
Tempted by the desires resulting from (yOgic concentration for) liberation, people are ruined by supernatural powers - aNimA and the like - which stand on the way (to liberation); please always show mercy.

Word-by-word Meaning

P O Ocean (AlavAla) of compassion (kRpA) (kRpAlavAla)! O Lord SrI rAma saluted (kRta abhivandana) (kRtAbhivandana) by Lord Siva – one who wears (dhara) the digit of the Moon (kalA) on His head (SEkhara)!

A O Excellent (uttama) among kings (nRpa) (nRpOttama)! O Lord who relieves (nivAraNa) the sins (agha) of people (jana) (janAgha) who have sought (Agata) Your refuge (SaraNa) (SaraNAgata)!
O Moon (SaSAnka) born in the Solar (Sun) – favourable (hita) to Lotus – born of water (abja) (nivAraNAbja) – dynasty (anvaya) (hitAnvaya)!
O Ocean of compassion! O Lord SrI rAma saluted by Lord Siva – one who wears the digit of the Moon on His head!

C O Lord (ayya)! tempted (jUci) (literally looking) by the desires (kAmamulanu) resulting from (phala) (yOgic concentration for) liberation (apavarga), people are ruined (mOsa buccedaru) (buccedarayya) by supernatural powers (siddhula) - aNimA and the like (Adi) (aNimAdi) - which stand on the way (aDDamai) (to liberation);
O Lord of Most Holy (su-pavitra) Form (rUpa)! please always (sadA) show (jUDu) mercy (karuNa);
O Protector (pAlaka) of celestials (sura)! O Lord praised (nuta) by this tyAgarAja!
O Ocean of compassion! O Lord SrI rAma saluted by Lord Siva – one who wears the digit of the Moon on His head!

Notes –
Variations –
1 – kRpAlavAla – nRpAlavAla : nRpAlavAla does not seem to be appropriate.

3 – kAmamulanu – kAmulanu.

References –
5 – aNimAdi - Eight-Fold siddhi - aNiman – become minute as atom; laghiman – extreme lightness; prApti – reach anything (moon with the tip of finger); prAkAmya – irresistible will; mahiman – illimitable bulk; ISitA – supreme dominion; vaSitA – subjugating by magic; kAmAvaSAyitA – suppressing all desires : Source – Monier’s Sanskrit Dictionary.

aNiman, laghiman, prApti, prakAmya, mahiman, ISitA and vaSitA and garimA – making oneself heavy at will – Source tamizh pingala nigaNDu.

Please also refer to SrImad bhAgavataM, Book 11, Chapter 15 (generally known as uddhava gIta), wherein eight primary siddhis and another 10 secondary siddhis are mentioned. Please also visit website –

Please also refer to Patanjali Yoga Sutras (Chapter 3 – Powers).

Comments -
2 – apavarga phala – 'apavarga' generally means liberation (mOksha or mukti). mOksha is the acme and end-result of all human endeavours and Lord's grace; therefore, there cannot be any 'result' (phala) accruing from mOksha. If it were so, it would not be called 'mOksha'. mOksha is realising one's true identity – this is explained through a story by Swami Vivekananda -

"There was once a baby lion left by its dying mother among some sheep. The sheep fed it and gave it shelter. The lion grew apace and said "Ba-a-a" when the sheep said "Ba-a-a". One day another lion came by. "What do you do here?" said the second lion in astonishment: for he heard the sheep-lion bleating with the rest. "Ba-a-a," said the other. "I am a little sheep, I am a little sheep, I am frightened." "Nonsense!" roared the first lion, "come with me; I will show you." And he took him to the side of a smooth stream and showed him that which was reflected therein. "You are a lion; look at me, look at the sheep, look at yourself." And the sheep-lion looked, and then he said, "Ba-a-a, I do not look like the sheep — it is true, I am a lion!" and with that he roared a roar that shook the hills to their depths."
(Complete Works of Swami Vivekananda, Vol 8 - The Essence of Religion.

Therefore, the meaning of the word 'apavarga' (combined with 'phala') needs to be gone into.

The following quotes from tirumandiram - by tirumUlar are relevant-
There are Five gradations of mukti (2474 - 2477, 2864, 2865) (1) Jiva mukti is the atIta - beyond consciousness state; (2) Para mukti is upaSAnta (Divine Peace); (3) Siva mukti is Ananda (Divine Bliss); (4) Turiya – svarupa; (5) Nirvana (Ariya Turiyatita).

By ashtanga yoga eight siddhis are attained (669); Siddhis lead to Mukti only by Sakti's Grace (670); Beyond Siddhis is True Goal (671); Siddhis lead to Kamiya Loka (672); Samadhi transcends siddhis (631) (The yogi who attains samadhi, does not seek the eight siddhis. He transcends them. He walks with God. He becomes one with the God.) (Translation by Dr B Natarajan). For verses of tirumandiram and translation please visit website –

According to patanjali yOga sUtras, samadhi is two types – sa-bIja samAdhi (I.46) and nir-bIja samadhi (I.51). According to Sri Ramakrishna Paramahamsa, there are five types of samAdhi - sa-vikalpa, nir-vikalpa, chetana, jada, unmana and sthita (The Gospel of Sri Ramakrishna pp 639).

The following are the views of Swami Chinmayananda –

“There are three types of samadhi : Savikalpa samadhi, Nirvikalpa samadhi and Sahaja samadhi. In Savikalpa samadhi there can be thoughts inside the trance, but the trance will not be disturbed or perturbed. The thoughts are like children playing in a room when the father is deeply absorbed in his studies. The children are playing, but they do not disturb him. So in Savikalpa samadhi there can be a turbulence of thoughts and ideas, but the divine trance that the seeker is enjoying will not be affected.

In Nirvikalpa samadhi there is no thought, no idea, nothing whatsoever. All is tranquility, or you can say tranquility's flood. Here nature's dance comes to an end. The restless activity of human nature cannot play its role. There is no thought, no idea, no form, only the transcendental Silence and boundless Peace, Light and Delight. In this expanse of infinite Peace, Light and Delight, there exist only the seeker and his Beloved Supreme, who have become one.

Then comes a samadhi known as Sahaja samadhi. In this samadhi, after having attained the highest realm of consciousness, one can remain on earth and enter into multifarious activities while maintaining his highest realisation. It is as if one is sitting quietly inside a jet plane which is flying at a speed of seven-hundred miles per hour, but one does not notice any motion at all. In Sahaja samadhi one maintains the highest transcendental consciousness within and, at the same time, throws himself into the world's activities in order to transform humanity and free humanity from ignorance. This samadhi is for those who have reached the Highest and whom the Highest Absolute Supreme wants to manifest Himself in and through.” Source –

4 – aDDamai aNimAdi – The following verse of SrImad-bhAgavataM, Book 11, Chapter 15 is relevant –

upAsakasya mAmEvaM yOgadhAraNayA munEH
siddhayaH pUrvakathitA upatishThantyaSEshataH 31
antarAyAn vadantyEtA yunjatO yOgamuttamaM
mayA sampadyamAnasya kAlakshapaNahEtavaH 33

kRshNa said -
“The aforesaid siddhis in their entirety wait upon the sage who worships Me through yOgic concentration as detailed in the foregoing verses.”

“Learned experts in devotional service state that the mystic perfections of yoga that I have mentioned are actually impediments and are a waste of time for one who is practicing the supreme yoga, by which one achieves all perfection in life directly from Me.”

The following verse of patanjali yOga sUtra is also relevant –

bhava pratyayO vidEha prakRtilayAnAM I. 19
tadvairAgyAdapi dOshabIjakshayE kaivalaM III. 51
sthanyupanimantraNE sangasmayAkaraNaM
punaranishTa-prasangAt III.52

“When such concentration is not accompanied by non-attachment, and ignorance therefore remains, the aspirant will reach the state of the disincarnate gods or become merged in the forces of Nature.” (I.19)

“By giving up even these powers, the seed of evil is destroyed and liberation follows. (III.51)

When tempted by the invisible beings in high places, let the yogi feel neither allured nor flattered; for he is in danger of being caught once more by ignorance.” (III. 52) (Translation by Swami Prabhavananda)

“....Upto a certain point, temptation increases with spiritual growth. As the aspirant ceases to be a mere beginner and gains some mystical experience, his personality becomes magnetic. He finds that he can exert psychological power over others, and also sexual attraction. At the same time, his own senses grow keener and more capable of enjoyment. It is therefore easy for him to become involved in power and sex-relationships which will make him forget his original purpose......” (Notes by Swami Prabhavananda in patanjali yOga sUtras pp 144)

In regard to those fallen from the path of yOga (yOga-bhrashTa), the following verses from SrImad-bhagavad-gItA, Chapter 6 are relevant –

“Having attained to the worlds of the righteous, and dwelling there for everlasting years, one fallen from yOga reincarnates in the home of pure and the prosperous.” (41)

“There, he is united with the intelligence acquired in his former body, and strives more than before, for perfection, O Son of the kurus.” (43) (Translation by Swami Swarupananda)

The following verse from kaThOpanishad is also relevant of disincarnate gods (vidEha) –

yama tells nacikEta –
“(Since) I know that this treasure (comprising of fruits of action) is impermanent – for that permanent entity cannot be attained through impermanent things – therefore, (knowingly) did I pile up the nAcikEta fire with impermanent things, and have (thereby) attained (relative) permanence.” (I.ii.10)

From the foregoing references, it may seen that (a) mukti has many stages of which nirvANa is the final stage; (b) nirvikalpa samAdhi and nirvAna mean same; (c) dread of fall from the path of yOga – because of temptations of siddhis - is possible only for those who have not reached the nirvANa – nirvikalpa samAdhi stage; (d) according to tirumandiram, siddhis help attainment of nirvANa if they are not used for personal gains; (e) therefore, in this kRti ‘apavarga’ does not mean ‘nirvANa – nirvikalpa samAdhi, but lower levels only.

2 – apavarga phala kAmamulanu jUci aNimAdi siddhula mOsa buccedarayya – Based on the references cited above, the translation of this statement is as under –

“aNimAdi siddhis (phala) stand on the way (aDDamai) – not necessary obstructing but tempting - and wait on those who are on the path of liberation (apavarga). Therefore, if they desire (kAmamulu) these siddhis, they are ruined (mOsa buccedaru) (According to SrImad-bhagavad-gItA – reference quoted above – they are considered as ‘fallen from the path of yOga’).

I may humbly submit that without actually going through the process of yOgic concentration and reaching consummation, any amount of intellectual analysis will be futile. Therefore, if there are any mistakes in above statements (other than quotations), the viewers may please pardon me.


ऎ,कॆ,चॆ.. - e,ke,ce..(short);
ए,के,चे.. - E,kE,cE..(long);
ऐ,कै,चै.. - ai,kai,cai..;
ऒ,कॊ,चॊ.. - o,ko,co..(short);
ओ,को,चो.. - O,kO,cO..(long);
औ,कौ,चौ.. -au,kau,cau..;

प. कृ(पा)लवाल कला धर शेखर
कृ(ता)भिवन्दन श्री राम

अ. नृ(पो)त्तम शर(णा)गत ज(ना)घ
निवार(णा)ब्ज हि(ता)न्वय शशांक (कृ)

च. अपवर्ग फल काममुलनु जूचि अड्डमै
अणि(मा)दि सिद्धुल मोस बुच्चॆद(र)य्य
सु-पवित्र रूप सदा करुण जूडु
सुर पालक त्यागराज नुत (कृ)


க,ச,ட,த,ப - 2-ख छ ठ थ फ; 3-ग ड द ब; 4-घ झ ढ ध भ
(ச3 - ஜ)
ஸ1 श - शिव - சிவன்
ரு2 ऋ - कृप - கிருபை

ப. க்ரு2(பா)லவால கலா த4ர ஸே1க2ர
க்ரு2(தா)பி4வந்த3ன ஸ்ரீ ராம

அ. ந்ரு2(போ)த்தம ஸ1ர(ணா)க3த ஜ(னா)க4
நிவார(ணா)ப்3ஜ ஹி(தா)ன்வய ஸ1ஸா1ங்க (க்ரு2)

ச. அபவர்க3 ப2ல காமமுலனு ஜூசி அட்3ட3மை
அணி(மா)தி3 ஸித்3து4ல மோஸ பு3ச்செத3(ர)ய்ய
ஸு-பவித்ர ரூப ஸதா3 கருண ஜூடு3
ஸுர பாலக த்யாக3ராஜ நுத (க்ரு2)

கருணைக் கடலே! கலையணி சேகரனால்
வந்திக்கப்பெற்ற இராமா!

மன்னரிலுத்தமனே! சரணடைந்தோரின் பாவங்களைக்
களைவோனே! பரிதி குலத்தின் மதியே!
கருணைக் கடலே! கலையணி சேகரனால்
வந்திக்கப்பெற்ற இராமா!

முத்திப் பயனின் இச்சைகளைக் கண்டு, குறுக்கிடும்
அணிமாதி சித்திகளினால் வஞ்சிக்கப் பெற்றனரய்யா;
தூய உருவோனே! எவ்வமயமும் கருணை காட்டுவாய்;
வானோரைப் பேணுவோனே! தியாகராசனால் போற்றப்பெற்றோனே!
கருணைக் கடலே! கலையணி சேகரனால்
வந்திக்கப்பெற்ற இராமா!

கலை - பிறை
கலையணி சேகரன் - சிவன்


ప. కృపాలవాల కలా ధర శేఖర
కృతాభివందన శ్రీ రామ

అ. నృపోత్తమ శరణాగత జనాఘ
నివారణాబ్జ హితాన్వయ శశాంక (కృ)

చ. అపవర్గ ఫల కామములను జూచి అడ్డమై
అణిమాది సిద్ధుల మోస బుచ్చెదరయ్య
సు-పవిత్ర రూప సదా కరుణ జూడు
సుర పాలక త్యాగరాజ నుత (కృ)


ಪ. ಕೃಪಾಲವಾಲ ಕಲಾ ಧರ ಶೇಖರ
ಕೃತಾಭಿವಂದನ ಶ್ರೀ ರಾಮ

ಅ. ನೃಪೋತ್ತಮ ಶರಣಾಗತ ಜನಾಘ
ನಿವಾರಣಾಬ್ಜ ಹಿತಾನ್ವಯ ಶಶಾಂಕ (ಕೃ)

ಚ. ಅಪವರ್ಗ ಫಲ ಕಾಮಮುಲನು ಜೂಚಿ ಅಡ್ಡಮೈ
ಅಣಿಮಾದಿ ಸಿದ್ಧುಲ ಮೋಸ ಬುಚ್ಚೆದರಯ್ಯ
ಸು-ಪವಿತ್ರ ರೂಪ ಸದಾ ಕರುಣ ಜೂಡು
ಸುರ ಪಾಲಕ ತ್ಯಾಗರಾಜ ನುತ (ಕೃ)


പ. കൃപാലവാല കലാ ധര ശേഖര
കൃതാഭിവന്ദന ശ്രീ രാമ

അ. നൃപോത്തമ ശരണാഗത ജനാഘ
നിവാരണാബ്ജ ഹിതാന്വയ ശശാങ്ക (കൃ)

ച. അപവര്ഗ ഫല കാമമുലനു ജൂചി അഡ്ഡമൈ
അണിമാദി സിദ്ധുല മോസ ബുച്ചെദരയ്യ
സു-പവിത്ര രൂപ സദാ കരുണ ജൂഡു
സുര പാലക ത്യാഗരാജ നുത (കൃ)

Updated on 30 Jan 2009

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