Monday, July 02, 2007

Thyagaraja Kriti - Nadachi Nadachi - Raga Kharaharapriya

Transliteration–Telugu _______________________________________________________
Transliteration as per Modified Harvard-Kyoto (HK) Convention
(including Telugu letters – Short e, Short o) -

a A i I u U
R RR lR lRR
e E ai o O au M (H or :)

(e – short E – Long o – short O – Long)

k kh g gh n/G
c ch j jh n/J (jn – as in jnAna)
T Th D Dh N
t th d dh n
p ph b bh m
y r l L v
S sh s h

naDaci naDaci-kharaharapriya

In the kRti ‘naDaci naDaci’ – rAga kharaharapriya, SrI tyAgarAja pities those people who do not know where to look for rAma.

P naDaci naDaci jUcEr(a)yOdhyA
nagaramu kAnarE

A puDami suta sahAyuDai celangE
1pUrNuni 2AtmArAmuni kUDi(y)ADa (naDaci)

C 3aTTE 4kannulu kUrci teraci sUtramu
paTTi veliki 5vEsha dhArulai
6puTTu cAvu lEni tAvu teliyaka
pogaDedaru 7tyAgarAja vinutuni (naDaci)

Gist
People looked for one's Self, Lord rAma - consort of sItA - the Whole - praised by this tyAgarAja - by walking all the way to the city of ayOdhyA, but could not find Him.
Focusing the eyes and half-closing, sitting without motion of eyes or body, holding a rosary, for all appearances wearing a garb of a yOgi but indeed a fake, they simply extolled Him not knowing the real location where there is no birth or death.

Word-by-word Meaning

P People looked (jUcEru) (for SrI rAma) by walking all the way (naDaci naDaci) (literally walking on and on) to the city (nagaramu) of ayOdhyA (jUcErayOdhyA), but could not find (kAnarE) Him.

A People looked for one’s Self (AtmA) Lord rAma (rAmuni) – who is (celangE) the consort (sahAyuDai) (literally companion) of sItA – daughter (suta) of Earth (puDami) and who is the Whole (pUrNa),
by walking all the way to the city of ayOdhyA in order to be united (kUDi Ada) (kUDiyADa) with Him, but could not find Him.

C Focusing (kUrci) the eyes (kannulu) and half-closing (teraci) (literally opening), (sitting) without motion (of eyes or body) (aTTE) (literally thus),
holding (paTTi) a rosary (sUtramu),
for all appearances (veliki) (literally externally) wearing (dhArulai) a garb (vEsha) (of a yOgi but indeed a fake),
they (simply) extolled (pogaDedaru) Him not knowing (teliyaka) the (real) location (tAvu) where there is no (lEni) birth (puTTu) or death (cAvu);
people looked for SrI rAma - the Lord praised (vinutuni) by this tyAgarAja by walking all the way to the city of ayOdhyA, but could not find Him.

Notes –
Variations –

References –

Comments -
1 – pUrNuni – In this regard, please refer to following ISAvasyOpanishad verse -
OM pUrNamadaH pUrNamidaM pUrNAt pUrNamudacyatE
pUrNasya pUrNamAdAya pUrNamEva avaSishyatE

“OM. That (Brahman) is infinite, and This (universe) is infinite. This infinite proceeds from That infinite. Taking the infinitude of This inifinte (universe) That infinite remains same (Brahman) alone.”
For an essay on the upanishad, please refer to –
http://www.swami-krishnananda.org/essay/essay_1.html

2 - AtmArAmuni – The dictionary meaning of ‘AtmArAma’ is ‘rejoicing in one’s Self or in the Supreme Spirit'. For this purpose, the word is to be split as ‘AtmA + ArAma’.
However, from the context and taking into consideration the comparision of people looking for Lord rAma at ayOdhyA, in my humble opinion, this word is to be split as ‘AtmA (Atman) + rAma’ – meaning ‘the Lord rAma (paramAtmA) effulgent as Individual Self (AtmA –Atman).
In this regard, the 'AtmArAma' verse in SrImad bhAgavataM, Book 1, Chapter 7 is relevant -

AtmArAmAsca munayO nirgranthA apyurukramE
kurvantyahaitukIM bhaktimitthambhUtaguNO hariH 10

“As far as the word ātmārāma is concerned, the Lord (Caitanya) explained that the word ātmā is used to indicate: (1) the Supreme Absolute Truth, (2) the body, (3) the mind, (4) endeavor, (5) conviction, (6) intelligence, and (7) nature. The word ārāma means enjoyer; therefore anyone who takes pleasure in the cultivation of the knowledge of these seven items is known as ātmārāma.”
Source – http://vedabase.net/tlc/15/en
Also refer to exhaustive meanings of the word ‘AtmArAma’ given in http://vedabase.net/cc/madhya/24/en1

The following verses from SrImad bhagavad gItA, are also relavant -

yO(a)ntaHsukhO(a)ntarArAmastathA(a)ntarjyOtirEva yaH
sa yOgI brahmanirvANaM brahmabhUtO(a)dhigacchati V. 24

ahamAtmA guDAkESa sarvabhUtASayastithaH
ahamAdiSca madhyaM ca bhUtAnAmanta Eva ca X. 20

“Whose happiness is within, whose relaxation is within, whose light is within, that Yogi alone, becoming Brahman, gains absolute freedom. (Within – In the Self).”

“I am the Self, O guDAkESa, existent in the heart of all beings; I am the beginning, the middle, and also the end of all beings.” (Translation Swami Swarupananda)

3 – aTTE – Here the motionless posture of body and eyes in meditation is meant – literally ‘thus’
4 – kannulu kUrci teraci – meditation as prescribed in yOga SAstras – focusing both the eyes at the centre and concentrating at the middle of eye-brows with eyes half-closed.
5 – vEsha dhArulai – pogaDedaru – Please refer to kRti ‘Emi jEsitE’ – rAga tODi wherein SrI tyAgarAja criticises the phoney gurus –

guruvu tAnaitEnEmi ....
vara mantramanyulakupadEsincitEnEmi
vara tyAgarAja nutuni daya lEni vAru ....

"What is the use whether one becomes a preceptor and whether one initiates others in sacred syllables, unless one has the grace of the Lord SrI rAma...."

6 – puTTu cAvu lEni tAvu – Place where there is no birth or death. In this regard, the following verse of SrImad-bhagavad-gItA, Chapter 13 is relevant –
ya EvaM vEtti purushaM prakRtiM ca guNaiH saha
sarvathA vartamAnO(a)pi na sa bhUyO(a)bhijAyatE 23

“He who thus knows the purusha and prakRti togethers with guNas, whatever his life, is not born again.”
Whatever his life, etc – Whether he be engaged in prescribed or forbidden acts, he is not born again. For the acts, the seeds of re-birth, of a knower of Truth are burnt by the fire of knowledge, and thus cannot be effective causes to bring about births. In his case they are mere semblances of karma; a burnt cloth, for instance, cannot serve the purposes of a cloth.
(Translation and Notes – Swami Swarupananda)

Also refer to kRti ‘entani nE’ – rAga mukhAri, wherein SrI tyAgarAja extols Sabari as having reached the place from where there is no return (punarAvRtti rahita padamunu pondina). The grace conferred on Sabari is considered as an exceptional grace of the Lord on a person who is otherwise not qualified for emancipation by the generally applied yardsticks.

Also refer to kRti ‘kOTi nadulu’ – rAga tOdi wherein SrI tyAgarAja tells his mind about the futility of pilgrimages etc when the Lord is to be found inside (kOTi nadulu dhanushkOTilOnuNDaga ETiki tirigedavE O manasA).

Please also refer to website for verse of kathOpanishad ‘parAnci khAni’ (II.i.1) as to why we always look outward and not inward –
http://www.advaita.org.uk/discourses/definitions/Atman.htm
7 – tyAgarAja vinutuni – this can be joined to 'pogaDedaru' or to the pallavi. Joining to the pallavi seems to be more appropriate.
General – In the kRti, SrI tyAgarAja subtly brings out the purport of the famous verse of bhajanAvaLi; we may substitute 'ayOdhyA' for 'vaikuNTha' -

nAhaM vasAmi vaikunThe na yOgi hRdaye ravau
madbhakta: yatra gAyanti tatra tishThami nArada

"O nArada! Neither I live vaikunTha nor in the hearts of yOgi. I am indeed there where my bhaktas are singing (my praises)."


Devanagari Version

ऎ,कॆ,चॆ.. - e,ke,ce..(short);
ए,के,चे.. - E,kE,cE..(long);
ऐ,कै,चै.. - ai,kai,cai..;
ऒ,कॊ,चॊ.. - o,ko,co..(short);
ओ,को,चो.. - O,kO,cO..(long);
औ,कौ,चौ.. -au,kau,cau..;

प. नडचि नडचि जूचे(र)योध्या
नगरमु कानरे

अ. पुडमि सुत सहायुडै चॆलंगे
पूर्णुनि आत्मारामुनि कूडि(या)ड (न)

च. अट्टे कन्नुलु कूर्चि तॆरचि सूत्रमु
पट्टि वॆलिकि वेष धारुलै
पुट्टु चावु लेनि तावु तॆलियक
पॊगडॆदरु त्यागराज विनुतुनि (न)


Tamil Version with Meaning

க,ச,ட,த,ப - 2-ख छ ठ थ फ; 3-ग ड द ब; 4-घ झ ढ ध भ
(ச3 - ஜ)
ஸ1 श - शिव - சிவன்
ரு2 ऋ - कृप - கிருபை

ப. நட3சி நட3சி ஜூசே(ர)யோத்4யா
நக3ரமு கானரே

அ. புட3மி ஸுத ஸஹாயுடை3 செலங்கே3
பூர்ணுனி ஆத்மாராமுனி கூடி3(யா)ட3 (ந)

ச. அட்டே கன்னுலு கூர்சி தெரசி ஸூத்ரமு
பட்டி வெலிகி வேஷ தா4ருலை
புட்டு சாவு லேனி தாவு தெலியக
பொக3டெ3த3ரு த்யாக3ராஜ வினுதுனி (ந)

நடந்து நடந்து நோக்கினர் அயோத்தி
நகரத்திற்கு, (ஆயின்) காணரே!

புவி மகள் உடனுறையாக விளங்கும்
பூரணனை, ஆன்மாராமனைக் கூடியிருப்பதற்கு
நடந்து நடந்து நோக்கினர் அயோத்தி
நகரத்திற்கு, (ஆயின்) காணரே!

அப்படியே, கண்களைக் கோர்த்து, (பகுதி) திறந்து,
செபமாலை பற்றி, வெளியில் வேடமணிந்து,
பிறப்பு, இறப்பற்ற இடத்தினை யறியாது,
புகழ்ந்தனர்; தியாகராசனால் போற்றப்பெற்றோனை
நடந்து நடந்து நோக்கினர் அயோத்தி
நகரத்திற்கு, (ஆயின்) காணரே!

புவி மகள் - சீதை
பூரணன் - பரம்பொருள்
ஆன்மாராமன் - சீவான்மாவாக உள்ளொளிரும் பரமான்மா
அப்படியே - உடலசைவின்றி - கல் மாதிரி
கண்களைக் கோர்த்து பகுதி திறந்து - மனதை ஒருமைப் படுத்தும் தியான முறை
பிறப்பு, இறப்பற்ற இடம் - உள்ளுறை பரம்பொருள்


Telugu Version

ప. నడచి నడచి జూచేరయోధ్యా
నగరము కానరే

అ. పుడమి సుత సహాయుడై చెలంగే
పూర్ణుని ఆత్మారాముని కూడియాడ (న)

చ. అట్టే కన్నులు కూర్చి తెరచి సూత్రము
పట్టి వెలికి వేష ధారులై
పుట్టు చావు లేని తావు తెలియక
పొగడెదరు త్యాగరాజ వినుతుని (న)


Kannada Version

ಪ. ನಡಚಿ ನಡಚಿ ಜೂಚೇರಯೋಧ್ಯಾ
ನಗರಮು ಕಾನರೇ

ಅ. ಪುಡಮಿ ಸುತ ಸಹಾಯುಡೈ ಚೆಲಂಗೇ
ಪೂರ್ಣುನಿ ಆತ್ಮಾರಾಮುನಿ ಕೂಡಿಯಾಡ (ನ)

ಚ. ಅಟ್ಟೇ ಕನ್ನುಲು ಕೂರ್ಚಿ ತೆರಚಿ ಸೂತ್ರಮು
ಪಟ್ಟಿ ವೆಲಿಕಿ ವೇಷ ಧಾರುಲೈ
ಪುಟ್ಟು ಚಾವು ಲೇನಿ ತಾವು ತೆಲಿಯಕ
ಪೊಗಡೆದರು ತ್ಯಾಗರಾಜ ವಿನುತುನಿ (ನ)


Malayalam Version

പ. നഡചി നഡചി ജൂചേരയോധ്യാ
നഗരമു കാനരേ

അ. പുഡമി സുത സഹായുഡൈ ചെലങ്ഗേ
പൂര്ണുനി ആത്മാരാമുനി കൂഡിയാഡ (ന)

ച. അട്ടേ കന്നുലു കൂര്ചി തെരചി സൂത്രമു
പട്ടി വെലികി വേഷ ധാരുലൈ
പുട്ടു ചാവു ലേനി താവു തെലിയക
പൊഗഡെദരു ത്യാഗരാജ വിനുതുനി (ന)

Updated on 15 Nov 2008

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