Thursday, December 27, 2007

Thyagaraja Kriti - Vanaja Nayanudani - Raga Kedaara Gaula

Transliteration–Telugu _______________________________________________________
Transliteration as per Modified Harvard-Kyoto (HK) Convention
(including Telugu letters – Short e, Short o) -

a A i I u U
R RR lR lRR
e E ai o O au M (H or :)

(e – short E – Long o – short O – Long)

k kh g gh n/G
c ch j jh n/J (jn – as in jnAna)
T Th D Dh N
t th d dh n
p ph b bh m
y r l L v
S sh s h

vanaja nayanuDani-kEdAragauLa

In the kRti ‘vanaja nayanuDani’ – rAga kEdAragauLa, SrI tyAgarAja makes nindA stuti – negative praise of the Lord.

P vanaja nayanuD(a)ni valacitivO vAni
manasuna daya lEdE

A 1munupaTi caritamulanu viniy(u)nna
vanita svabhAvamu valana SrI rAmuni (vana)

C 2orula bAdhalaku Orvaka(y)uNDuTa
parama dharmam(a)nucu bAguga palkunu
varaduDu ASrita vatsaluD(a)ni pErE
dhara jayam(o)sangu SrI tyAgarAja vinutuni (vana)

Gist
O My Mind!
Did you fall in love (with the Lord) because He is Lotus Eyed? But, there is no compassion in His heart.

Just like the nature of the woman who had heard earlier exploits (of her lover), did You too fall in love with SrI rAma because He is Lotus Eyed? But, there is no compassion in His heart.

He would nicely speak that it is one’s Supreme duty not to remain indifferent towards others’ troubles;

He has just a name as bestower of boons and One having parental affection towards those dependent on Him;

did You too fall in love with Lord SrI rAma - who confers victory in this World – praised by this tyAgarAja - because He is Lotus Eyed? But, there is no compassion in His heart.

Word-by-word Meaning

P O My Mind! Did you fall in love (valacitvO) (with the Lord) because (ani) He is Lotus (vanaja) Eyed (nayanuDu) (nayanuDani)? But, there is no (lEdE) compassion (daya) in His (vAni) heart (manasuna) (literally mind).

A Just like (valana) the nature (svabhAvamu) of the woman (vanita) who had heard (viniyunna) earlier (munupaTi) exploits (caritamulanu) (literally story or conduct) (of her lover),
did You too fall in love with SrI rAma (rAmuni) because He is Lotus Eyed? But, there is no compassion in His heart.

C He would nicely (bAguga) speak (palkunu) that (anucu) it is one’s Supreme (parama) duty (dharmamu) (dharmamanucu) not to remain indifferent (Orvaka uNDuTa) (literally to be impatient) (OrvakayuNDuTa) towards others’ (orula) troubles (bAdhalaku);
He has just a name (pErE) as (ani) bestower of boons (varaduDu) and One having parental affection (vatsaluDu) (vatsaluDani) towards those dependent (ASrita) on Him;
did You too fall in love with Lord SrI rAma - who confers (osangu) victory (jayamu) (jayamosangu) in this World (dhara) – praised (vinutuni) by this tyAgarAja - because He is Lotus Eyed? But, there is no compassion in His heart.

Notes –
References –
1 – munupaTi caritamulanu viniyunna vanita – This, in my humble opinion, refers to SrI rukmiNi. The following verses from SrImad-bhAgavathaM, Book 10, Chapter 52 are relevant -

sOpaSrutya mukundasya rUpa-vIrya-guNa-SriyaH
gRhAgatair-gIyamAnAs-taM mEnE sadRSaM patiM (23)

"Having closely heard about the comeliness, valour, excellences and affluence of SrI kRshNa, as being celebrated by visitors to her house, she (rukmiNi) began to look upon Him as her befitting husband.”

Subsequently, rukmiNi sent a missive to SrI kRshNa -

SrutvA guNAn bhuvana-sundara SRNvatAM te
nirviSya karNa-vivarair-haratO-(a)nga-tApaM
rUpaM dRSAM dRSimatAM akhilArtha-lAbhaM
tvayy-acyut-AviSati cittam-apatrapaM mE (36)

yasyAnghri-pankaja-rajaH-snapanaM mahAntO
vAncanty-umA-patiriv-Atma-tamO-(a)pahatyaiH
yarhy-ambujAksha na labhEya bhavat-prasAdaM
jahyAm-asUn vrata kRSAnchata janmabhiH-syAt (43)

“O immortal Lord! I heard of your beauty - the most handsome and in all the (three) Worlds; (I heard) of your excellences which entered deep into the heart through the ears and dispelled the agony of my heart. O beloved one! Your charming appearance vouchsafes, to those who have set their eyes on you, all the blessings sought by them; (similarly), my mind has been set on You and (all) the shame has fled away from it.
O Lotus-eyed Lord! Even great souls like Lord Siva desire a bath in the dust of your Lotus Feet to dispel the darkness of ignorance. Therefore, if I do not secure your grace, I shall lay down my life, (already) withered by fasting. I shall persist (in my effort) even if I have to go through a hundred births in order to secure your grace.”

2 - orula bAdhalaku OrvakayuNDuTa parama dharmamu – Here SrI tyAgarAja seems to refer to the conversation between SrI rAma and sIta in SrImad-vAlmIki rAmAyaNa, AraNya kANDa, Chapter 10 regarding protecting the ascetics of daNDakAraNya from the demons.

Comments -
General – This kRti is addressed to the mind of SrI tyAgarAja, though there is no specific mention of his mind (manasA!).


Devanagari

ऎ,कॆ,चॆ.. - e,ke,ce..(short);
ए,के,चे.. - E,kE,cE..(long);
ऐ,कै,चै.. - ai,kai,cai..;
ऒ,कॊ,चॊ.. - o,ko,co..(short);
ओ,को,चो.. - O,kO,cO..(long);
औ,कौ,चौ.. -au,kau,cau..;

प. वनज नयनु(ड)नि वलचितिवो वानि
मनसुन दय लेदे

अ. मुनुपटि चरितमुलनु विनि(यु)न्न
वनित स्वभावमु वलन श्री रामुनि (वन)

च. ऒरुल बाधलकु ओर्वक(यु)ण्डुट
परम धर्म(म)नुचु बागुग पल्कुनु
वरदुडु आश्रित वत्सलु(ड)नि पेरे
धर जय(मॊ)संगु श्री त्यागराज विनुतुनि (वन)

Tamil

க,ச,ட,த,ப - 2-ख छ ठ थ फ; 3-ग ड द ब; 4-घ झ ढ ध भ
(ச3 - ஜ)
ஸ1 श - शिव - சிவன்
ரு2 ऋ - कृप - கிருபை

ப. வனஜ நயனு(ட3)னி வலசிதிவோ வானி
மனஸுன த3ய லேதே3

அ. முனுபடி சரிதமுலனு வினி(யு)ன்ன
வனித ஸ்வபா4வமு வலன ஸ்ரீ ராமுனி (வன)

ச. ஒருல பா3த4லகு ஓர்வக(யு)ண்டு3ட
பரம த4ர்ம(ம)னுசு பா3கு3க3 பல்குனு
வரது3டு3 ஆஸ்1ரித வத்ஸலு(ட3)னி பேரே
த4ர ஜய(மொ)ஸங்கு3 ஸ்ரீ த்யாக3ராஜ வினுதுனி (வன)

ஏ மனமே!
கமலக்கண்ணனென காதலித்தாயோ? அவன்
உள்ளத்தினில் இரக்கம் இல்லையே!

முந்தைய சரிதங்களைச் செவிமடுத்துள்ள
வனிதையின் இயல்பினைப் போலும், இராமனை
கமலக்கண்ணனென காதலித்தாயோ? அவன்
உள்ளத்தினில் இரக்கம் இல்லையே!

மற்றவர் துன்பங்களைக் கண்டு பொறுக்காதிருத்தல்
தலையாய அறமென நன்கு பகர்வான்; (அவனுக்கு)
வரமருள்வோன், சார்ந்தோரிடம் கனிவுடையோனெனப் பெயரே;
புவியில் வெற்றியளிக்கும், தியாகராசனால் போற்றப் பெற்றோனை
கமலக்கண்ணனென காதலித்தாயோ? அவன்
உள்ளத்தினில் இரக்கம் இல்லையே!

வனிதை - ருக்மணி (கண்ணனின் மனைவி)

Telugu

ప. వనజ నయనుడని వలచితివో వాని
మనసున దయ లేదే

అ. మునుపటి చరితములను వినియున్న
వనిత స్వభావము వలన శ్రీ రాముని (వన)

చ. ఒరుల బాధలకు ఓర్వకయుండుట
పరమ ధర్మమనుచు బాగుగ పల్కును
వరదుడు ఆశ్రిత వత్సలుడని పేరే
ధర జయమొసంగు శ్రీ త్యాగరాజ వినుతుని (వన)

Kannada

ಪ. ವನಜ ನಯನುಡನಿ ವಲಚಿತಿವೋ ವಾನಿ
ಮನಸುನ ದಯ ಲೇದೇ

ಅ. ಮುನುಪಟಿ ಚರಿತಮುಲನು ವಿನಿಯುನ್ನ
ವನಿತ ಸ್ವಭಾವಮು ವಲನ ಶ್ರೀ ರಾಮುನಿ (ವನ)

ಚ. ಒರುಲ ಬಾಧಲಕು ಓರ್ವಕಯುಂಡುಟ
ಪರಮ ಧರ್ಮಮನುಚು ಬಾಗುಗ ಪಲ್ಕುನು
ವರದುಡು ಆಶ್ರಿತ ವತ್ಸಲುಡನಿ ಪೇರೇ
ಧರ ಜಯಮೊಸಂಗು ಶ್ರೀ ತ್ಯಾಗರಾಜ ವಿನುತುನಿ (ವನ)

Malayalam

പ. വനജ നയനുഡനി വലചിതിവോ വാനി
മനസുന ദയ ലേദേ

അ. മുനുപടി ചരിതമുലനു വിനിയുന്ന
വനിത സ്വഭാവമു വലന ശ്രീ രാമുനി (വന)

ച. ഒരുല ബാധലകു ഓര്വകയുണ്ഡുട
പരമ ധര്മമനുചു ബാഗുഗ പല്കുനു
വരദുഡു ആശ്രിത വത്സലുഡനി പേരേ
ധര ജയമൊസങ്ഗു ശ്രീ ത്യാഗരാജ വിനുതുനി (വന)

Updated on 28 May 2009

2 comments:

S.Govindaswamy said...

Dear Sri Govindan
In this song tyAgaAjA is finding fault with/chiding his mind (a female) for falling in love with rAmA. If so, is it not against the vaishnava philosophy that only God is a male and all other living beings are female?
A : munupaTi caritamulanu viniyunna vanita - For ‘viniyunna vanita’ the meaning taken is the lady who had heard. You Have taken this to refer to SrI rukmiNi. I wonder whether we can interpret this differently as below. ‘viniyunna/viniyunnA’ can also mean, ‘even though you have heard. If so the reference could be to the Rshis getting enamoured with rAmA, vide the kriti muddu mOmu ElAgu. The reference could also be to sUrpanaka falling in love with rAmA. They did not succeed in their advances. In this case vanita and svabhAvamu, taken together, can mean, feminine nature. My interpretation is as below. முந்தைய (ரிஷிகள் மற்றும் சூர்ப்பனகையின்) சரிதங்களைக் கேட்டிருந்தும், பெண்புத்தியால் கமலக்கண்ணனென இராமனைக் காதலித்தாயோ.
As KRSNAvatAram is after rAmAvatAraM, your interpretation of ‘munupati caritamulu’ may not be proper.
Regards
Govindaswamy

V Govindan said...

Dear Sri Govindaswamy,
Re : mind as female. The relationship between the jIvAtman and paramAtman vis-à-vis jIvAtman and antaHkaraNa (mind) needs to be distinguished. It is only at the former level that all jIvAtmans are considered as females and only paramAtman is the purushOttama. Therefore, I do not think there is any contradiction. Further, SrI tyAgarAja, though a great vaishNava, was also an advaitin, which can be seen from many of his kRtis.

Re : rAmAvatara and kRshNAvatAra. Here the address is to the mind. Therefore, which one precedes does not make a difference.

In the kRti 'celimini jalajAkshu' - rAga yadukula kAmbhOji, (prahlAda bhakti vijayaM) tyAgarAja, mentions about rAmAvatAra. Whereas nRsiMhAvAtAra precedes, rAmAvatAra; for tyAgarAja, every avatAra is as good as co-existing simultaneously. His mental frame (bhAva) is such that the time and space dimension which we ordinary humans perceive vanishes for ever. Therefore, we may not be able to analyse his kRtis in strict frame of time.

Re : vanita - I have taken this word to mean rukmiNi because the wordings, in my opinion, seem to fit into the story of rukimiNi. However, there could be other interpretations. In the main body of the kRti, I have not given the name of rukmiNi, but only in my notes. Therefore, the situations brought out by you - excepting SUrpanakha - may be relevant. Somehow, SUrpanakha does not fit into the picture. She had not heard about rAma. Only after seeing him, she gets infatuated - as per vAlmIki rAmAyaNa.

Thanks for your suggestions,
Regards,
V Govindan