Tuesday, November 27, 2007

Thyagaraja Kriti - Sarasa Saama Daana - Raga Kaapi Naaraayani

Transliteration–Telugu _______________________________________________________
Transliteration as per Modified Harvard-Kyoto (HK) Convention
(including Telugu letters – Short e, Short o) -

a A i I u U
R RR lR lRR
e E ai o O au M (H or :)

(e – short E – Long o – short O – Long)

k kh g gh n/G
c ch j jh n/J (jn – as in jnAna)
T Th D Dh N
t th d dh n
p ph b bh m
y r l L v
S sh s h

sarasa sAma dAna-kApinArAyaNi

In the kRti ‘sarasa sAma dAna’ – rAga kApinArAyaNi, SrI tyAgarAja extols the Lord about the way He dealt with rAvaNa.

P sarasa 1sAma dAna bhEda daNDa catura
sATi daivam(e)varE brOvavE

A parama SAmbhav(A)grEsaruND(a)gucu2
palku rAvaNuDu teliya lEka pOye (sarasa)

C hitavu mATal(e)ntO bAga palkitivi
3satamugAn(a)yOdhyan(i)ttun(a)NTivi
nata sahOdaruni rAju cEsi rAka
hatamu jEsitivi tyAgarAja nuta (sarasa)

Gist
O Elegant Lord who is adept in the four-fold actions (of rAja dharma) - conciliation, gift or bribe, creation of dissension and punishment! O Lord praised by this tyAgarAja!

Which God is equal to You?
Deign to protect me.

But, rAvaNa, being the eminent devotee of the great Lord Siva, failed to understand Your words!

You conveyed well a lot of beneficial words; You said that ‘I shall offer even ayOdhyA for ever’; when he (rAvaNa) did not mend his ways even after anointing vibhIshaNa – his brother who supplicated before You – as King of lankA, You ultimately slayed him.

Word-by-word meaning

P O Elegant Lord (sarasa) who is adept (catura) in the four-fold actions (of rAja dharma) - conciliation (sAma), gift or bribe (dAna), creation of dissension (bhEda) and punishment (daNDa)!
which (evarE) God (daivamu) (daivamevarE) is equal (sATi) to You? deign to protect (brOvavE) me.

A But, rAvaNa (rAvaNuDu) being (agucu) the eminent (agrEsaruNDu) devotee of the great (parama) (literally supreme) Lord Siva (SAmbhava) (literally related or belonging to Sambhu) (SAmbhavAgrEsaruNDagucu), failed to understand (teliya lEka pOye) Your words (palku)!
O Elegant Lord who is adept in the four-fold actions (of rAja dharma) - conciliation, gift or bribe, creation of dissension and punishment! which God is equal to You? deign to protect me.

C You conveyed (palkitivi) (literally uttered) well (bAga) a lot of (entO) beneficial (hitavu) words (mATalu) (mATalentO);
You said (aNTivi) that ‘I shall offer (ittunu) even ayOdhyA (ayOdhyanu) for ever’ (satamugAnu) (satamugAnayOdhyAnittunaNTivi);
when he (rAvaNa) did not mend his ways (rAka) (literally come) even after anointing (cEsi) (literally make) vibhIshaNa – his brother (sahOdara) (sahOdaruni) who supplicated (nata) before You – as King (rAju) of lankA, You ultimately slayed (hatamu jEsitivi) him;
O Lord praised (nuta) by this tyAgarAja!
O Elegant Lord who is adept in the four-fold actions (of rAja dharma) – conciliation, gift or bribe, creation of dissension and punishment! which God is equal to You? deign to protect me.

Notes –
Variations –
2 – agrEsaruNDagucu – agrEsaruNDanucu : In the present context, 'agrEsaruNDagucu' seems to be appropriate.

3 – satamugAnayOdhyanittunu – satamugAnayOdhyaniccEnu.

References –
1 – sAma dAna bhEda daNDa - Four-fold method of rAja dharma in dealing with enemy - conciliation, gifts/bribe, sowing dissensions and war/punishment. – please refer to dEvi bhAgavataM, Book 1, Chapter 7 -

Comments -
1 – dAna – bhEda - As brought in the note on caraNa, it is not clear whether SrI rAma did actually entice rAvaNa by offering ayOdhyA. vibhIshaNa sought asylum of the the Lord voluntarily and this would not amount to ‘creating dissension’. Therefore, as per SrImad vAlmIki rAmAyaNa, SrI rAma did not resort to ‘dAna’ or ‘bhEda’ – but only ‘sAma’ and ‘daNDa’.

3 - satamugAnayOdhyanittunu – ‘I shall give you ayOdhya for ever’ – the purported statement of SrI rAma, addressed to rAvaNa, is not found in SrImad vAlmIki rAmAyaNa. In sundara kANDa, AnjanEya, after seeing sItA, assumes himself the task of meeting rAvaNa; in the Court of rAvaNa, AnjanEya does not make any such statement (of giving even ayOdhya to rAvaNa). Subsequently, in yuddha kANDa, SrI rAma despatches angada (son of vAli) as a messenger to rAvaNa to ask him to return sItA; even here, there is no such mention of ayOdhyA being bestowed on rAvaNa. Therefore, the source of the statement of SrI tyAgarAja is not traceable.


Devanagari

ऎ,कॆ,चॆ.. - e,ke,ce..(short);
ए,के,चे.. - E,kE,cE..(long);
ऐ,कै,चै.. - ai,kai,cai..;
ऒ,कॊ,चॊ.. - o,ko,co..(short);
ओ,को,चो.. - O,kO,cO..(long);
औ,कौ,चौ.. -au,kau,cau..;

प. सरस साम दान भेद दण्ड चतुर
साटि दैव(मॆ)वरे ब्रोववे

अ. परम शाम्भ(वा)ग्रेसरु(ण्ड)गुचु
पल्कु रावणुडु तॆलिय लेक पोयॆ (सरस)

च. हितवु माट(लॆ)न्तो बाग पल्कितिवि
सतमुगा(न)योध्य(नि)त्तु(न)ण्टिवि
नत सहोदरुनि राजु चेसि राक
हतमु जेसितिवि त्यागराज नुत (सरस)

Tamil

க,ச,ட,த,ப - 2-ख छ ठ थ फ; 3-ग ड द ब; 4-घ झ ढ ध भ
(ச3 - ஜ)
ஸ1 श - शिव - சிவன்
ரு2 ऋ - कृप - கிருபை

ப. ஸரஸ ஸாம தா3ன பே4த3 த3ண்ட3 சதுர
ஸாடி தை3வ(மெ)வரே ப்3ரோவவே

அ. பரம ஸா1ம்ப4(வா)க்3ரேஸருண்(ட3)கு3சு
பல்கு ராவணுடு3 தெலிய லேக போயெ (ஸரஸ)

ச. ஹிதவு மாட(லெ)ந்தோ பா3க3 பல்கிதிவி
ஸதமுகா3(ன)யோத்4ய(னி)த்து(ன)ண்டிவி
நத ஸஹோத3ருனி ராஜு சேஸி ராக
ஹதமு ஜேஸிதிவி த்யாக3ராஜ நுத (ஸரஸ)

சமாதானம், கொடை, பிளவு, தண்டனை ஆகிய நான்கிலும்
வல்ல இனியோனே! உனக்கு நிகர் தெய்வமெவருளர்? காப்பாய்;

உயர் சம்புவின் அடியார்களில் தலைசிறந்தோனாகியும்
(உனது) சொற்களை இராவணன் அறியாமற் போனானே!
சமாதானம், கொடை, பிளவு, தண்டனை ஆகிய நான்கிலும்
வல்ல இனியோனே! உனக்கு நிகர் தெய்வமெவருளர்? காப்பாய்

இதமான சொற்களெத்தனையோ நன்கு பகர்ந்தாய்;
என்றைக்கும் அயோத்தியையும் அளிப்பேனென்றாய்;
பணிந்த சோதரனை அரசனாக்கியும் (வழிக்கு) வராமற் போக,
(அவனை) வதைத்தாய்; தியாகராசனால் போற்றப் பெற்றோனே!
சமாதானம், கொடை, பிளவு, தண்டனை ஆகிய நான்கிலும்
வல்ல இனியோனே! உனக்கு நிகர் தெய்வமெவருளர்? காப்பாய்

சமாதானம், கொடை, பிளவு, தண்டனை -
பகைவரையணுகுவதில் நான்கு முறைகள் (அரசியல்)

சம்பு - சிவன்
சோதரன் - விபீடணன்

Telugu

ప. సరస సామ దాన భేద దండ చతుర
సాటి దైవమెవరే బ్రోవవే

అ. పరమ శాంభవాగ్రేసరుండగుచు
పల్కు రావణుడు తెలియ లేక పోయె (సరస)

చ. హితవు మాటలెంతో బాగ పల్కితివి
సతముగానయోధ్యనిత్తునంటివి
నత సహోదరుని రాజు చేసి రాక
హతము జేసితివి త్యాగరాజ నుత (సరస)

Kannada

ಪ. ಸರಸ ಸಾಮ ದಾನ ಭೇದ ದಂಡ ಚತುರ
ಸಾಟಿ ದೈವಮೆವರೇ ಬ್ರೋವವೇ

ಅ. ಪರಮ ಶಾಂಭವಾಗ್ರೇಸರುಂಡಗುಚು
ಪಲ್ಕು ರಾವಣುಡು ತೆಲಿಯ ಲೇಕ ಪೋಯೆ (ಸರಸ)

ಚ. ಹಿತವು ಮಾಟಲೆಂತೋ ಬಾಗ ಪಲ್ಕಿತಿವಿ
ಸತಮುಗಾನಯೋಧ್ಯನಿತ್ತುನಂಟಿವಿ
ನತ ಸಹೋದರುನಿ ರಾಜು ಚೇಸಿ ರಾಕ
ಹತಮು ಜೇಸಿತಿವಿ ತ್ಯಾಗರಾಜ ನುತ (ಸರಸ)

Malayalam

പ. സരസ സാമ ദാന ഭേദ ദണ്ഡ ചതുര
സാടി ദൈവമെവരേ ബ്രോവവേ

അ. പരമ ശാമ്ഭവാഗ്രേസരുണ്ഡഗുചു
പല്കു രാവണുഡു തെലിയ ലേക പോയെ (സരസ)

ച. ഹിതവു മാടലെന്തോ ബാഗ പല്കിതിവി
സതമുഗാനയോധ്യനിത്തുനണ്ടിവി
നത സഹോദരുനി രാജു ചേസി രാക
ഹതമു ജേസിതിവി ത്യാഗരാജ നുത (സരസ)

Updated on 26 Apr 2009

4 comments:

S.Govindaswamy said...

Dear Sri Govindan

I found the last three lines of caraNam totally different in the book byTTD. This is given below.
“satamugA nayODhya niccEnanTivi
Atani shOdharuni rAjugAnu cEsi
hatamu jEsitivi tyAgarAja nuta”

The meaning given is as below. When rAmA promised the throne of lankA to vibhIshaNa, lakshmaNa and others asked Him, what He would do if rAvaNa regretted and asked rAmA to pardon him. rAmA replied that he would bestow the throne of ayOdhYa to rAvaNa.
As there are so many versions of rAmAyaNa in India and abroad, this story is probably in one version, just like sIta leaving her original form with agni and going with rAvaNa with a duplicate form, as found in the kRiti ‘mA jAnaki’.
Kambar says that rAvaNa while abducting sItA did not touch Her. tyAgarAja goes one step further and says ‘dAnavuni veNTanE cani’.

C – For rAka you have given the meaning as “when he (rAvaNa) did not mend his ways (rAka) (literally come)”. I am not able to fully agree with this. I have been thinking that rAka is the colloquial for rAkshasa , namely rAvaNa. Or is this rAkasa? Is not rAkshasi becoming rAkasi/rAkAsi? Has my guess any substance?
For “satamugAnayOdhyanittunu” can we take the meaning that rAmA offered the kingdom to baratA for ever?
Regards
Govindaswamy

V Govindan said...

Dear Sri Govindaswamy,
Regarding the alternative version given in the book TTD, I think it should be the figment of imagination of the author. I have checked all the books and I do not find such a version.

Regarding 'rAka', the actual telugu word is 'rakkasuDu' or 'rakkasi'. Please refer to http://dsal.uchicago.edu/cgi-bin/romadict.pl?query=rakkasi&table=brown

Regarding giving lankA to bharata, such an interpretation is not borne by facts.

Regards,
V Govindan

ramu said...

Dear Sri Govindan and Sri Govindaswamy

The meaning for that word "raka" in CharaNam "hitavu mATal(e)ntO bAga palkitivi
3satamugAn(a)yOdhyan(i)ttun(a)NTivi
nata sahOdaruni rAju cEsi rAka
hatamu jEsitivi tyAgarAja nuta" is very simple and it doesn't mean Rakshasa rather it is just while coming back.

The correct meaning is when you were coming after making Vibhishana as the king killed Ravana (Hatamu - Kill)

Regards
Srini Ramachandran

V Govindan said...

Sri Ramachandran,
Nice to have your comments. Please continue to contribute.

In this case, the word 'rAka', in my opinion, is the short form of 'dOvaku rAka' - not mending ways.

In spite of rAvaNa's open defiance of canons of dharma, rAma follows the rules of rAja dharma. He sends emissaries to him. First, it was Anjaneya, then Angada. Then, when face to face with rAvaNa, rAma does not kill him when rAvaNa stands unarmed and tired. rAma asks him to go back and get rest and come back next day for fight.

Earlier, rAma made vibhIshaNa, the king of Lanka even before the war began - that shows the confidence level. Yet, rAma never over-played his confidence to become arrogant.

This is what the bard praises as 'sarasa sAma dAna bhEda daNDa catura'.

'rAka' would not, in my humble opinion, mean 'while coming back'. It is not correct meaning for the word 'rAka' and such a meaning is also not in tune with the events as unfolded.

Regards,
Please keep writing your views,
V Govindan