Sunday, July 13, 2008

Thyagaraja Kriti - Idi Samayamura - Raga Chayanata

Transliteration–Telugu
Transliteration as per Modified Harvard-Kyoto (HK) Convention
(including Telugu letters – Short e, Short o) -

a A i I u U
R RR lR lRR
e E ai o O au M (H or :)

(e – short E – Long o – short O – Long)

k kh g gh n/G
c ch j jh n/J (jn – as in jnAna)
T Th D Dh N
t th d dh n
p ph b bh m
y r l L v
S sh s h

idi samayamurA -chAyAnATa

In the kRti ‘idi samayamurA’ – rAga chAyAnATa (tALa Adi), SrI tyAgarAja asks Lord to keep His word of protecting him.

pallavi
idi samayamurA ina kula tilaka


anupallavi
1vidaLita kali durmada gaja gamana
2modaTa palkinadi nijamuga jEya (idi)


caraNam
3kali purushuDu nATakamunu kaTTa
talacinADu SrI tyAgarAja nuta
4khala matamul(a)nE yAgamulaku
mEkaluga narula 5jEsi nI daya jUDa (idi)


Gist

  • O Pride of Solar dynasty! O Lord who rent asunder the arrogance of kali purusha! O Lord with elephant-like gait! O Lord praised by this tyAgarAja!

    • Now is the time to fulfill what you said earlier.

      • kali purusha is contemplating to enact a drama by making men as (sacrificial) goats for the sacrificial oblations called base sects.


    • Now is the time to show Your mercy.



    Word-by-word Meaning

    pallavi
    idi samayamurA ina kula tilaka

    Now (idi) is the time (samayamurA) (to fulfill Your promise); O Pride (tilaka) (literally auspicious mark on forehead) of Solar (ina) dynasty (kula)!


    anupallavi
    vidaLita kali durmada gaja gamana
    modaTa palkinadi nijamuga jEya (idi)

    O Lord who rent asunder (vidaLita) the arrogance (dur-mada) of kali purusha! O Lord with elephant-like (gaja) gait (gamana)!
    Now is the time to fulfill (nijamuga jEya) (literally make true) what you said (palkinadi) earlier (modaTa); O Pride of Solar dynasty!


    caraNam
    kali purushuDu nATakamunu kaTTa
    talacinADu SrI tyAgarAja nuta
    khala matamulu-anE yAgamulaku
    mEkaluga narula jEsi nI daya jUDa (idi)

    kali purusha (purushuDu) is contemplating (talacinADu) to enact a drama (nATakamunu kaTTa) by making (jEsi) men (narula) as (sacrificial) goats (mEkaluga) for the sacrificial oblations (yAgamulaku) called (anE) base (khala) sects (matamulu) (matamulanE);
    O Lord (SrI) praised (nuta) by this tyAgarAja! Now is the time to show (jUDa) Your (nI) mercy (daya); O Pride of Solar dynasty!


    Notes –
    Variations
    5 – jEsi nI – jEsunE. As the words ‘jEsi nI’ are appropriate in the context, the same has been adopted.

    References -
    1 - vidaLita kali durmada – In this regard the following verses of SrImad- bhAgavataM – Book One – Chapter 17 are relevant –

    abhy-arthitas-tadA tasmai sthAnAni kalayE dadau
    dyUtaM pAnaM striyaH sUnA yatrAdharmaS-catur-vidhaH
    punaS-ca yAcamAnAya jAtarUpam-adAt-prabhuH
    tatO-(a)nRtaM madaM kAmaM rajO vairaM ca pancamaM
    amUni panca sthAnAni hy-adharma prabhavaH kaliH
    auttarEyENa dattAni nyavasat tan-nidESa-kRt
    athaitAni na sEvatE babhUshuH purushaH kvacit
    viSEshatO dharma-SIlO rAjA lOka-patir-guruH 38 – 41

    “Thus entreated by kali, the King (parIkshit) then allocated to him the following (four) places – dice, wine, women, and shambles – the hotbeds of four vices (falsehood, intoxication, passion and cruelty).

    On kali asking for more abodes, the mighty King assigned him gold (as the fifth abode). Thus he allotted to him falsehood, intoxication, passion and slaughter with animosity as the fifth.

    In obedience to the King’s command, kali the progenitor of unrighteousness, occupied these five abodes assigned by parIkshit.

    Hence a man seeking blessedness, especially a pious monarch, a leader of the people and a religious preceptor should never resort to these.”

    2 - modaTa palkinadi – When read in conjunction with ‘kali purusha’, SrI tyAgarAja probably refers to the statement of Lord kRshNa in SrImad- bhagavad-gItA, Chapter 4 –

    yadA yadA hi dharmasya glAnir-bhavati bhArata
    abhyutthAnam-adharmasya tadAtmaAnaM sRjAmy-ahaM
    paritrANAya sAdhUnAM vinASAya ca dush-kRtAM
    dharma-saMsthApanArthAya saMbhavAmi yugE yugE (7, 8 )

    “Whenever, O Descendent of Bharata, there is decline of dharma, and rise of adharma, then I body Myself forth.

    For the protection of the good, for the destruction of the wicked, and for the establishment of dharma, I come into being in every age.” (Translation by Swami Swarupananda)

    Comments -
    3 – kali purusha – Personification of kali yuga.

    4 – khala matamulanE yAgamulaku – When read in conjunction with anupallavi where ‘kali purusha’ is mentioned, SrI tyAgarAja means the pursuit of such activities which lead to the abodes of kali purusha (dice, wine, women, and shambles and gold - falsehood, intoxication, passion, cruelty and animosity) as stated above.

    But, in many kRtis, SrI tyAgarAja uses the word ‘mata’ to mean all such practices other than bhakti – particularly the path of vEdic karma performed in pursuit of Worldly enjoyments.




    Devanagari

    ऎ,कॆ,चॆ.. - e,ke,ce..(short);
    ए,के,चे.. - E,kE,cE..(long);
    ऐ,कै,चै.. - ai,kai,cai..;
    ऒ,कॊ,चॊ.. - o,ko,co..(short);
    ओ,को,चो.. - O,kO,cO..(long);
    औ,कौ,चौ.. -au,kau,cau..;

    प. इदि समयमुरा इन कुल तिलक

    अ. विदळित कलि दुर्मद गज गमन
    मॊदट पल्किनदि निजमुग जेय (इदि)

    च. कलि पुरुषुडु नाटकमुनु कट्ट
    तलचिनाडु श्री त्यागराज नुत
    खल मतमु(ल)ने यागमुलकु
    मेकलुग नरुल जेसि नी दय जूड (इदि)




    Tamil

    க,ச,ட,த,ப - 2-ख छ ठ थ फ; 3-ग ड द ब; 4-घ झ ढ ध भ
    (ச3 - ஜ)
    ஸ1 श - शिव - சிவன்
    ரு2 ऋ - कृप - கிருபை

    ப. இதி3 ஸமயமுரா இன குல திலக

    அ. வித3ளித கலி து3ர்மத3 க3ஜ க3மன
    மொத3ட பல்கினதி3 நிஜமுக3 ஜேய (இதி3)

    ச. கலி புருஷுடு3 நாடகமுனு கட்ட
    தலசினாடு3 ஸ்ரீ த்யாக3ராஜ நுத
    க2ல மதமு(ல)னே யாக3முலகு
    மேகலுக3 நருல ஜேஸி நீ த3ய ஜூட3 (இதி3)

    இது தருணமய்யா, பரிதி குலத்திலகமே!

    கலியின் வன்செருக்கினை யடக்கியவனே! களிறு நடையோனே!
    முன்பு பகன்றதனை மெய்ப்பிக்க
    இது தருணமய்யா, பரிதி குலத்திலகமே!

    இழிந்த மதங்களெனும் வேள்விகளுக்கு
    (பலி) ஆடுகளாக மனிதர்களைச் செய்து
    கலி புருடன் நாடகமிசைக்க எண்ணியுள்ளான்;
    தியாகராசனால் போற்றப் பெற்றோனே! நீ கருணை காட்ட
    இது தருணமய்யா, பரிதி குலத்திலகமே!

    முன்பு பகன்றது - 'அறம் குலையும்போது, தீயோரை அழிப்பதற்கும், நல்லோரைக் காப்பதற்கும் நான் ஒவ்வோர் யுகத்திலும் அவதரிப்பேன்' என கீதையில் கண்ணன் கொடுத்த வாக்குறுதி.

    இழிந்த மதங்கள் - கலி புருடன் உறையும் பொய்மை, மதுவருந்தல், காமம், கொடுமை மற்றும் பகைமை ஆகிய தீய செயல்களைக் குறிக்கும்




    Telugu

    ప. ఇది సమయమురా ఇన కుల తిలక

    అ. విదళిత కలి దుర్మద గజ గమన
    మొదట పల్కినది నిజముగ జేయ (ఇది)

    చ. కలి పురుషుడు నాటకమును కట్ట
    తలచినాడు శ్రీ త్యాగరాజ నుత
    ఖల మతములనే యాగములకు
    మేకలుగ నరుల జేసి నీ దయ జూడ (ఇది)




    Kannada

    ಪ. ಇದಿ ಸಮಯಮುರಾ ಇನ ಕುಲ ತಿಲಕ

    ಅ. ವಿದಳಿತ ಕಲಿ ದುರ್ಮದ ಗಜ ಗಮನ
    ಮೊದಟ ಪಲ್ಕಿನದಿ ನಿಜಮುಗ ಜೇಯ (ಇದಿ)

    ಚ. ಕಲಿ ಪುರುಷುಡು ನಾಟಕಮುನು ಕಟ್ಟ
    ತಲಚಿನಾಡು ಶ್ರೀ ತ್ಯಾಗರಾಜ ನುತ
    ಖಲ ಮತಮುಲನೇ ಯಾಗಮುಲಕು
    ಮೇಕಲುಗ ನರುಲ ಜೇಸಿ ನೀ ದಯ ಜೂಡ (ಇದಿ)




    Malayalam

    പ. ഇദി സമയമുരാ ഇന കുല തിലക

    അ. വിദളിത കലി ദുര്മദ ഗജ ഗമന
    മൊദട പല്കിനദി നിജമുഗ ജേയ (ഇദി)

    ച. കലി പുരുഷുഡു നാടകമുനു കട്ട
    തലചിനാഡു ശ്രീ ത്യാഗരാജ നുത
    ഖല മതമുലനേ യാഗമുലകു
    മേകലുഗ നരുല ജേസി നീ ദയ ജൂഡ (ഇദി)




    Updated on 14 Feb 2010

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